Yn Canmol y Bydysawd

(Panegyric of the Universe)

A Taxonomy of
The Major Deities of the

Brythonic Kelt

and Their Interface with

The Human Organism

"Hard in pursuit and on leathern wings
Fly the terrible dragons of Royal Beleu......"


  .............         PREFACE

Although this exposition is concerned with the personages in British myth, I must disabuse the reader at the outset of the assumption that I am trenching upon what is usually termed Comparative Mythology.

Certainly my approach is philological inasmuch as the research is geared to the extrusion of the Keltic roots of the names of the dramatis personae in one particular myth but, unlike the Philological School in which comparative mythology had its birth, I am not concerned with the comparison of such names with those in various Indo-European languages in an endeavour to prove any spurious links by loose or malleable analogies, as is so often  the case.

Professor Max Muller (1823 - 1900) was the leader of this school which evolved what is known as mythic science and his study of comparative philology was to lead him to apply this tool to mythology.  Nevertheless, Comparative Mythology really indicates the profiling of the myths of one nation with those of another in an attempt to find a unique congruity and, therefore, the universality of mythic construction by the human mind at certain epochs of human development.(1)

I have eschewed this aspect of mythology, preferring to view my researches as being within the realms of Analytical Metaphysics as the personages at issue were a number of the Elder Deities of the Keltic race in Britain. Nevertheless I admit to adding Sanskrit as a stout ally in certain parts of the thesis as well as whatsoever aspects of Quantum Physics as are necessary.

1. Intrduction to Mythology by Lewis Spence (Harrap) 1921.

You will need at some point a Greek font - this is the one used herein:- SPionic  The Hebrew font used herein is 'hermetica', the two Sanskrit syllables which appear in the text being given as gifs.


Within The Oxford English Dictionary, taxonomy is described thus: "Classification, especially in relation to its general laws or principles; that department of science, or of a particular science or subject, which consists in or relates to classification."

Biologists, for example, have found their taxonomy abundantly helpful as a means of ensuring accuracy in interchanges of information within their science and as a method of understanding the organisation and interface of the various parts of the animal and plant world.  As "order is Heaven's only law" (1)  we welcome any attempt to define the subjects of this thesis by a system of order.


First, The Question: "What are the Gods?"

This question was asked by the hero in Dion Fortune's book 'The Winged Bull'.  The reply given must surely be the best that one may ever find, "The gods are lenses that wise men have made through which to focus natural forces."   Here, however, we have a dilemma which disparate people can nonetheless find understandable and workable.  

The philosopher may talk of noumena, protyles & phenomena.
      The scientist and indeed the atheist may talk of essences or
......forces, substances and
           A Christian believes in his all-male Trinity, Archangels,
           Angels & Saints.
  ........       The polytheist and animist are quite comfortable with
................ Goddesses, Gods, Demigods, group & individual Spirits -
................ all part of the Great Divine Ocean.

 .................      The Cosmotheist and Metaphysician are quite at
........................home with Goddesses, Gods, High Kindred of the
....................... Elements and elemental life with Spirit at all levels of
....................... manifestation together with noumena, protyles,
........................phenomena, Cosmic Essences, Forces and the many
....................... &varied attributes thereof.

So here stand I
in this latter ecumenical category that happily holds hands in a circle with philosophers, scientists, atheists, animists and polytheists, all of whom may dine at the same table, would they but try.
Although the Keltic Deities of Britain are known by name and as dramatis personae of the ancient myths(2) in which they appear, no attempt has been made to ascertain the meaning of these names - an exercise which would reveal much concerning their place within the cosmic framework.

Here then, to satisfy our familiarity with human form, is an exercise that is primarily concerned with anthropomorphisms that are designed to connect us with the various Kantian Noumena and Protyles that are the abstract masks behind which linger essences, forces or powers.

Secondly, when one examines the formal structure of the Otz Chiim (The Tree of Life) in Qabalistic philosophy(3) - a well-ordered glyph which reveals, according to Rabbinical thinking, the spheres of influence of Hebraic divine concepts in cosmic terms and their hierarchal disposition, it is distressing to find that no similar classification has been attempted with the indigenous deities of other lands.

Being a Kelt and dwelling in that portion of Britain which was the original realm of the Kelts, I find the lack of any in-depth study of the ancient Keltic myths to be a grave omission.  The singular lack of conservation of this aspect of indigenous culture could easily permit such a major component of the group-soul of the race to become necrotic.

Who were the Kelts?  They were the indigenous race of mainland Britain sometimes called the Britons or Kymru (Welsh).

Their European troglodytic kindred of prehistory (especially in Gaul and Kelt-Iberia [Spain]), had been portraying god forms and ritual practices in well defined cave-art in Aurignacian cave shrines from 20,000 to 12,000 b.c. - millennia before the Protodynastic Period of Ancient Egypt or the Hebrews had seen the light of day.(4)

On the right is artwork in the 'Cavern des Trois Frères' at Ariège - a humanoid figure dressed in animal skin and antlers.  The Goddess figure found at the multi-chambered cavern of Lascaux depicted grossly exaggerated breasts, genitalia and abdominal distension suggesting advanced stages of pregnancy.

The Kelts were the people with a well-structured priesthood which Julius Caesar encountered in 55 a.e.v. (ante era vulgaris - before the common era) during his Western European campaign.  For these reasons the Kelts are due, at the very least, a modicum of regard and a rightful place within the study of Comparative Religion, although lacking, it must be admitted, the hoary antiquity of the ethnic Australian race.

Having used the term 'deities', which can impart a polytheistic outlook, the phrase 'divine strata' may prove equally cogent for the following reasons.

The beliefs of the nations of the Classical Period, e.g. Greece and Rome, and indeed the races of much earlier epochs were, without doubt, polytheistic.  This remains relatively true of the Hindus in the present day where a multiplicity of gods and goddesses are venerated below the singularity of Brahman, the Soul of the Universe or First Cause, who is considered to be unknowable and if not entirely neuter then at the very least androgynous as it manifests both as the masculine Purusha and the feminine Prakriti. (5)

With the inception of monotheism, however, this plurality of divine concepts did not disappear entirely but was retained in a masked form.  In the Jewish erudition of later Rabbinical philosophy, the facets of the divine gem were the many descriptive names of God, the archangels, choirs of angels and even the negative Qlippoth.(6)

Likewise The Roman Catholic Church (and, to a certain extent, its Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal 'sisters in Christ') has its battery of saints as a structured mediating body - a fact demonstrated by the calendar, introits, collects, lessons, graduals and gospels. (7)

Thirdly, whether one's belief is in a singular deity or in a plurality of gods, such a belief should govern the worshippers' mode of life and manifest in all areas of human existence.  No attempt has been made, however, to demonstrate the unique interrelationship between various strata of divinity and areas of the human organism as envisaged by an ancient race using an indigenous pantheon.

The purpose of this thesis is to correct the above three omissions using one major Keltic pantheon in demonstration.

How may this classification or strata and an interrelationship be attempted?  Is there an interrelationship between strata?

We are alive to the concept that the entire cosmos, which will be referred to from time to time as The Absolute, is one state wherein ALL within Infinity and Eternity coexist, i.e. all things occupy the same infinitely dimensioned space/time factor and condition of Being. (8)  (Metaphysical Law of Enclosure.)

And the term 'infinitely dimensioned' permits us to call upon certain strata or dimensions which, although limited,  can be understood by the human mind which is governed by limitations according to our present place and time in cosmic evolution or by our ancestors in their time.

Although metaphysicians and neometaphysicians have postulated the All-Is-One and One-Is-All concept of The Absolute, this is now well accepted on the scientific front but not by the rank and file pagan practitioner or New Age followers.  John Stewart Bell's Theorem in quantum mechanics, although highly technical, simply amounts to this:-  There are no systems existing in total isolation.  Every particle in the cosmos is in immediate (i.e. faster than light) communication with all other particles.  The entire array, including the parts separated by vast cosmic distances, functions as a whole system. (9)

Faster-than-light communication, however, seems prohibited by Special Relativity which would appear to negate the theory.  Nevertheless Bell's Theorem is undeniable, as a theorem in physics is a mathematical exposition which must be true if the mathematics contain no error and if the experiments on which it is based can be replicated.(10)   Bell's Theorem certainly contains no flaw and the experiments have been repeated satisfactorily several times.

The solution to the faster-than-light problem is the fact that Bellian transmissions involve communication not energy.  And since it is energy which cannot exceed light speed, Dr. Edward Harris Walker and Dr. Jack Sarfatti, when analysing the theorem, concur that it is 'consciousness' which is the cohesive element in the whole system. (11)  It has been said that thought travels at lightning speed and no one knows how far. (12)

The Pantheon following is the major pantheon of the great Hero-Gods and sublime Goddesses of the Keltic race and we shall attempt to rediscover how the ancient Kelts perceived their Deities as functional strata of The Absolute.

 1. Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (College of Divine Metaphysics, California.)

 2. The Mabinogi trans. Gwyn and Thomas Jones (Dent) 1970.
 3. The Mystical Qabalah by Dion Fortune (Ernest Benn) 1935.
 4. Primitive Mythology by Joseph Campbell (Viking Press) 1959.
 5. Indian Myth and Legend by Donald McKenzie (Gresham) AND
     Tantrik Yoga by J. Marques Riviere (Aquarian Press) 1940.
 6. The Mystical Qabalah by Dion Fortune (Ernest Benn) 1935.
 7. The Missal (Burns Oates & Washbourne) 1960.
 8. An Outline of the Principles and Concepts of Neometaphysics by Dr. J.J. Williamson (The
     Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.) 1970. page 1.

 9. Prometheus Rising by Robert Anton Wilson (Falcon Press) 1986.
10. ibid.
11. ibid.
12. Metaphysical Healing by Dr. Joseph Perry Green  (CDM, California.) 1993.

N.B. - for future reference:-

Noumenon = that which is perceived by the Greek nouj ('nous' or mind) - an inner plane contact, abstract essence or Pure Spirit. 'The object of an act of thought' - Kantian philosophy.  "Noumena and the noumenal world are objects of the highest knowledge, truths, and values." - Plato's philosophy.(a) 

Phenomenon = that which is perceived (Greek fainomenon ['phainómenon' or appearance]) via the human senses.  "The human mind is restricted to the logical world and thus can only interpret and understand occurrences according to their physical appearances" - Kantian philosophy.(b) In this, one could argue that herein lie the roots of the Metaphysical Law of Analogy.

Protyle = that which is found on a stratum below the noumenon of Pure Spirit - the subtle, sub-atomic essences which are the precursors or subtending agents of gross elements.  In chemistry, "a hypothetical primitive substance from which the chemical elements were supposed to have been formed." (c)


The children of Dôn are headed by the Goddess Dôn and Her Consort Beli.  They are never seen in the myth, their influence at all levels of manifestation being felt in the rule of Dôn's brother Math who has his seat in Caer Dathyl - the castle in Arfon.   (This locus may be found even today above Llanbedr Y Cennin in the county of Gwynedd, North Wales under the modern name Pen y Gaer.)

Pen y Gaer from the air

The principal children of Dôn are the gods Gwyn & Gwydion and the goddesses Penarddun and Arianrhod.   Gwydion and Arianrhod mate and have twin sons - Dylan and Llew while  Penarddun finds her pair-bonding with Llyr Llediaeth who is an outlander.  (There are other children - Gilfaethwy, Amaethon and Gofannon but these last two play less overt roles in the myth.) 

What we must not omit, forget or disregard is Math, the brother of
Dôn, who although appearing as an after thought on the family tree below, gives his name, rulership, authority, direction and influence to the 4th Branch of the Mabinogi in its entirety while Dôn and Beli remain as unseen Matriarch and Consort, the parents of the family.


Don   +  


Gwyn Penarddun Arianrhod      +  
Gilfaethwy Gofannon


Dylan   Llew     

This pantheon is the family which appears in the tale of "Math son of Mathonwy", the fourth branch of the ancient Welsh book known as The Mabinogi which has its derivation in the much older Red Book of Hergest, White Book of Rhydderch and Black Book of Caermarthen.

The various Kaerau (castles) in Keltic mythology which are the seats of the Deities (1)  will add much to the discussion of the theme and these will be explored end-on to the deities within the taxonomy.

Although no pronunciation guide is required, the Welsh names being read only and not vocalised in this treatise, I feel a short digression is valid at this point to elucidate the development of ancient Keltic/Welsh and, therefore, the background to the books aforementioned.

If we look to the spoken language of Britain, and here we should concern ourselves with the mainland (excluding Ireland), the language spoken at earliest known times has been called 'Parent British' or Primitive Welsh.

The phonetic mutations which divided Parent British into the streams of Welsh, Cornish and Breton occurred around 450 e.v.  So in the British mainland, excluding Pictland (i.e. the Northern half of Scotland) we find the Primitive Welsh period being from  the 6th to the 8th centuries; the Old Welsh period from the 8th to the 12th centuries; the Middle Welsh period from the 12th to the 14th centuries.(2)

After this latter period, Modern Welsh began to evolve its present format.

Although the myths and poems of the ancient books had been transmitted through the generations orally, they were but written centuries later at the following times:-

The Red Book of Hergest which contains the fifty-eight poems comprising The Book of Taliesin was first penned c. the 13th century.  The Black Book of Caermarthen dates also from this period,(3)  the White Book of Rhydderch appearing in the 14th century.  Many of the stories, however, appear to such scholars as Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones as being pre-eleventh century on account of vocabulary, grammar and syntax.(4)

How may we be sure that the contents of these works predate their appearance in print?

To demonstrate the veracity of these myths and of the very existence of such bards as Taliesin, we must regress chronologically to the writings of Nennius who, in his 7th century work 'The Genealogy of the Saxon Kings', mentions one Taliesin as being "renowned in British poetry."

According to Julius Caesar in his 'De Bello Gallico', when talking of the ancient British priesthood, his sources of information were Gallic Druids who told him their cosmology was founded in Britain and communicated to Gaul.

Perhaps the appearance of these myths of antiquity in their written form may well have been a subsequent rewriting.  This we may never know.  Gwyn and Thomas Jones in their introduction to The Mabinogi aver that modifications of tales are readily accounted for if we remember that the cyfarwydd (story teller) dealt with a wealth of traditional material which was housed in memory, not in a series of canonical texts.  The author of these written myths, i.e. he who gave them a preservable form, was simply the heir of bards and story-tellers unnumbered, the traditional material which had been subjected to much mutation going back to the earliest creative impulses of Keltdom.

What is known, however, is the fact that learned script was extant in the 5th century e.v., for in the middle years of that century St. Augustine, on his arrival in Britain, had the library at Bangor in North Wales burned to the ground together with his murder of the Archbishop of St. David's, six bishops and the Abbot of Bangor! (5)

Indeed 'The Gododdin', described as the earliest Scottish poem, was written in 600 e.v. in the land of the Gododdin tribe (i.e. around Edinburgh, Scotland) in the Primitive Welsh language - the tongue of the inhabitants of mid-Scotland at the time.  It was the work of the bard Aneurin and may be found in 'The Book of Aneurin'. (6)

With this survey before us we may proceed with the etymology of the deities in myth.

 a. Oxford Companion to Philosophy, E Henderich [Ed]
 b. Kant's 'On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Intelligible World' [1770] 
 c. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © Harper Collins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003.
 1. The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain by Lewis Spence (Aquarian Press) 1946.
 2. Language and History in Early Britain by Prof. K.H. Jackson (Edinburgh) 1953.
 3. The Mabinogi trans. Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones (Dent and Dutton) 1970.
 4. ibid.
 5. Portal of The Keltic Gods by Mael Gwynedd (Excalibur) 1991.
 6. The Gododdin by K.H. Jackson (Edinburgh University Press) 1950.


( Linguistic History)

Some conjecture only has appeared in various books which give an account of Keltic myths and legends - major works by such authors as Charles Squire, Lewis Spence, Christine Hartley, T.W. Rolleston, Dr. Anne Ross, Robert Graves et al..  Few of these, however, had a working knowledge of Modern Welsh let alone any scholarship in the more ancient Keltic variations of Middle or Old Welsh.  That much is all too obvious.  Even in modern translations of The Mabinogi, translators are apparently content to employ the corrupted names (oblivious of their origins) and preoccupy themselves with mythology in decline, myth-making and finding story patterns to the neglect of faithful interpretations thus each element of research producing a cacodoxy.  Their introductions are singular witness to this approach.  Perhaps their researches really fall within eccrinology or are at the very least effutiation.

It would appear that three reasons for the neglected study of the deities and their misinterpretation exist:-

1. Certain writers had little or no knowledge of Modern Welsh, Middle or Old Welsh.

2. Other writers are concerned only with the study of comparative mythology, attempting to find and classify common story threads in myths of various races, remaining unconcerned by the nature and regional import of the characters in each myth.  Indeed Christine Hartley in her 'Western Mystery Tradition' curiously states when discussing the pantheon at issue, "With most of these (i.e. deities) it is not necessary to concern oneself too much."(1a)  This from a woman who was a contemporary of Dion Fortune and who, as a member of the Society of the Inner Light, had a magical partner in Charles Seymour - the pair working on a Keltic ray!  Obviously the Brythonic Keltic pantheons remained silent to their inner-plane strivings.

3. Such writers as are skilled in Keltic language have blindly adopted the names of the personages in their contemporary form.  And here Dr. Anne Ross, whose doctorate is in Keltic languages and archaeology, must bear a certain proportion of guilt - her science of myth overriding all else.  Perhaps an in-depth microscopy was never considered as a Christian (even nominal) would be unconcerned with what are in essence pre-Christian god-forms with little validity, or so they felt, in modern British scholarship, society, state religion and basic racial spirituality.

As certain names have mutated over the centuries, therefore, it is to the older spelling and to the elder forms of the Keltic tongue we must turn to rediscover the meaning of each name.

THE PANTHEON of DÔN - TEULU DÔN (The Family of Dôn)

DÔN is the obvious mother of the pantheon. 

This is easily deduced from various personages who are referred to as Penarddun ferch (daughter of) Dôn, Gwydion ap (son of) Dôn and Arianrhod ferch Dôn.  The origin of this Matriarch's name is unclear but two possibilities present.

a) The Welsh 'ton' is the word for 'wave' or 'that which flows' and 'don' shows the logical Welsh mutation of the 't' to a 'd' which is the case when following the definite article.  In this manner 'ton' becomes 'y don' (the wave), the 'y' eventually disappearing when the word became a proper name.  On many occasions, occult writers, when talking of such matters, term this stratum of spirit Akasha or "space that flows."

b) The Welsh 'on' is an 'ash tree'.  Within the concepts of the Northern European Mysteries (Odinism) the ash tree is the structure which sustains the world, all that is above and all which lies below, i.e. the entire universe or cosmos - its branches spreading throughout the universe.  As the Old Welsh 'di' denotes 'from' or 'by nature of'.  Combined we find 'dion' (by nature of the ash) which may have been contracted to 'don'.   Here is the second possibility and the two are metaphysically compatible.

Here we have a structure which is analogous to 'y gwe' (the web), symbolic of the foundation of Dark Matter, the existent reality upon which manifestation appears.(1b)

Therefore the concept of 'flowing' and 'supporting structure of the cosmos' refers to the 'space which flows' and the 'invisible web of space' descriptors used by  many 20th century occult writers - the noumenal obscure Dark Matter(1c) in quantum physics and the later concept of 'shadow matter'(2) which was born of the string theory & super string theory in quantum mechanics.

This specific noumenon spawns the manifestation of cosmos in all its diverse aspects.  In short we have a cosmic matrix and, as such, Dôn satisfies the requirements of a Great Mother or Cosmic Goddess - the unseen Avia.

As Leslene Della-Madre reminds us, matter really means Mater, not only the Latin for 'mother' but I expand this to mean the concept of the vast, magnificent, ever-living Cosmic Femininity that permeates all things which She constantly extrudes.  Now what do the renowned and not so renowned mythologists have to add to the above?

At least Robert Graves in 'The White Goddess' refers to Dôn as the 'ancestor of the confederacy'.  Squire and Rolleston make no attempt to describe Dôn's identity while Dr. Ross simply calls her the 'nurturer of the gods'.  Christine Hartley's concept of this supreme Feminine stratum of Divine Power relegates her to the level of 'earth mother'.   So a number of mythologists evidently had not researched Her name or purpose but merely recognised Her rôle as dramatis persona.

MATH is the brother of Dôn. 

He is termed 'Son of Mathonwy' in the title of the myth and was the ruler over that portion of the country know as Gwynedd.  Throughout the myth he is very much the ruler inasmuch as he lays down the rule or laws.  He hears all.  He possesses the power, and indeed on many occasions exercises that power, to reward or punish.  And it is to Math that his subjects turn for judgements as he is considered the final arbiter.

He appears, therefore, to be the anthropomorphism of Fate.  Although these attributes should be remembered at this stage, it is perhaps essential that we provide textual evidence to support this hypothesis. 

This I feel is a sine qua non as Math not only gives his name to but also imprints his influence on this entire branch of The Mabinogi.  Like the roulette wheel - "How he'll act nobody knows!"

Textual Analysis

"Math .................. was lord over Gwynedd."

'Lord' is synonymous with 'ruler', he who lays down rules or laws - and Fate (action and reaction) is a complex cosmic law.

"Math might not live save while his two feet were in the fold of a maiden's lap."

The maiden was Goewin daughter of Pebin of Dol Bebin in Arfon.  Goewin means 'sprightly', denoting youth and was the earthly repesentative of the feminine principle on the mundane stratum of the legend. His power and very existence, then, lies in this feminine principle - especially in maidenhood, the state prior to motherhood or bringing forth.  He is stated, therefore, to be an offshoot of the Primordial Maiden, Dôn.

"The peculiarity of Math son of Mathonwy: whatever whispering, however low, there be between men, once the wind has met it he will know of it."

Nothing may be hidden from Math, nothing may escape his attention.  He is, therefore, universally based and, once aware of an action, implements the appropriate reaction.

"Math ................. and his host."

Here Math is in war council and, therefore, takes up the sword of justice as war-lord i.e. the bringer of retribution or negative fate.

"'Aye', said Math, 'between me and God, if it please Gwydion son of Dôn, I shall leave it gladly.  Nor will I for my part compel anyone to go to fight, instead of doing what we can'."

"'Let him be freed then'." (speaking of the Dyfed hostage.)

Here Math is seen as the arbiter and just judge whose word is law and whose commands are to be obeyed without question.

"'Aye', said he (Math), 'what I can, I will do: redress for thee (Goewin) first, and then I will seek redress'."

Math is the dispenser of retribution, not only on behalf of others, but also for the contravention of the inbuilt laws of Justice or Fate by Gwydion's aiding Gilfaethwy's rape of Math's foot-holder.  As the maiden represents Dôn, Gilfaethwy's mother, the lusting of this young man after a symbolic mother may point to a taboo on incest.

"A ban on their meat and drink went out against them." (i.e. Gwydion & Gilfaethwy)

Here is another example of Math's decrees which will compel malefactors to submit to justice.

"'But since you have come to me (Math), I will begin punishment upon you'."

Again he is portrayed as the dispenser of retribution.  In this case Gwydion and Gilfaethwy are condemned to become three different species of animal, one species for each of three years and each year one man will have young by the other.  Math sees the result at the end of this period, commenting how each had suffered "great shame", suggesting a further taboo in Keltic society, that of homosexual copulation. 

"'Long enough has been your punishment'."

Math is here displayed as the forgiver of sins, he who negates the punishment of negative fate when it is fully discharged.

"They came to Math ............. and made the most sustained complaint."

He is recognised by all as the judge to whom supplications may be made for justice - one whose power may be invoked.

"'Aye', said Math, 'let us seek, thou and I, by our magic and enchantment to conjure a wife for him (Llew) out of flowers'."

Math as the Lord of Fate undoes the injustice of Arianrhod on Llew to load the balance in his favour and give him the gifts and rewards which are his right.   (positive fate)

"'Why', said Math, 'I will give him the very best Cantref for a young man to have'."

This again demonstrates Math as the bestower of gifts or just rewards, i.e. positive fate.

"'Lord, it is time for me to have redress from him through whom I suffered ill'."

The appeal by Llew to Math as judge shows that retribution is not only expected but indeed demanded.  (i.e. invocation for a specific purpose.)

Math's treatment of Blodeuwedd by transforming her into an owl for her betrayal of Llew Llau Gyffes.

Again we are presented with an example of having to pay for one's misdeeds as directed by The Lord of Fate.

Having examined the text, can the name Math add further proof of his position in the pantheon?

The name Math is obviously a part of MATHonwy.  He is, therefore, an extruded or externalised part of Mathonwy.  Math is the nasal mutation of the Welsh 'bath' which means a coin, and a coin is the medium by which payment is made - another fact to be held in memory at this point.  To equate Math with 'treasure', as is sometimes done, is over simplification and of spurious validity when analysed thus.

The remaining part of Mathonwy as yet unexplained is 'onwy'.  Remembering that 'on' (the ash) was symbolic of The Great Mother Goddess and knowing that 'wy' is Welsh for 'egg', we now realise that Math is the extruded part of the egg or seed of the ash - brother of the Cosmic Goddess in her latent or virgin state (an embryonic ash) prior to her flowering into maturity and motherhood which brought forth extruded manifestation.

Math is, therefore, the 'Management Extension' of the Cosmic Goddess and the anthropomorphised Principle of Action and Reaction which permeates The Web and was part of the necessary equation to permit developed manifestation.  In recalling  his attributes as judge, lawgiver and bestower of positive and negative rewards and how payment must be made, we have his clear identity - The Lord of Fate or Destiny (Karma in Eastern philosophy). (3)

Graves and Squire equate Math with 'treasure', Squire further identifying him with "Pluton, the Greek God of Hades" as does Rolleston.  Even Lewis Spence in 'The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain' calls him a British "ruler of the Underworld" and Spence surprisingly was a prolific writer on the British Mystery systems, Druidism and the Arthurian mythos with much erudite research to his credit.

As Lord of Fate, therefore, He is a necessary extension of the passive or ‘feminine’ part of The Essence - that invisible web of stresses upon which parturition or manifestation forever takes place. 

Here, then, is the Agent of Destiny Who is still part of The One - The All.

BELI, according to Robert Graves is of uncertain origin. 

He continues with an argument that all things have their beginning in the East.  With this preoccupation with foreign bench-marks, he identifies Beli with the Babylonian god Bel, an earth god.  Within the same chapter of The White Goddess, however, we find him to change opinion suddenly, declaring that Beli was originally a "willow god" who later became a "Solar Zeus."

Squire, on the other hand, suggests that Beli is the British Dis Pater, god of the underworld, while Rolleston in similar fashion states that he is the "god of Death."  Lewis Spence, when quoting Sir John Rhys, confirms this latter incorrect identity. (4)

Beli, or to him his full title, 'Beli Mawr' is the husband or consort of Dôn.  As such, therefore, he must be assumed to be the All-Father God of the Cosmos.  To verify this hypothesis we see that Beli is a corruption of 'beleu' (which sounds very similar indeed) - the Middle Welsh word for 'wild beast'.

Although 'beleu' could be perceived as a plural, perhaps the 'eu' ending being considered a Middle Welsh equivalent of the Modern Welsh 'au' termination, this is decidedly not the case.  Nouns such as 'beleu' in Middle Welsh were subjected to affected vowels in the plural, giving us 'balawon' or 'balaon' as the plural form. (5)

Beli is frequently equated with the bull and indeed in one ancient Welsh poem, The Gododdin v. 39, we read:- "Ysgwyt vriw rac biw beli bloedvawr" - "A shivered shield before the herd of the roaring Beli."(5a) In the Black Book of Caermarthen, poem 33 - 'Ymddiddan Gwyddno Garanhir a Gwyn ap Nudd', he is alluded to as a bull of battle - "Tarv trin anvidin blaut. Ar benic llu lid anhaut".  ("Bull of battle was he, dynamic in routing an army in full array.")

The Welsh 'mawr' means 'great', so not only is He the wild beast/bull which was a symbol of strength and power, but the great wild beast/bull - strength and power to a superlative degree. 

He is, therefore, simply an anthropomorphization of a former theriomorphic representation of superlative power as an abstraction.  He is, in light of this, The All-Father or Cosmic God - pure omnipresent and omnipotent Consciousness.

(Needless to say he has NO relationship with the Beast of Revelation in the Greek Scriptures as these myths in their initial oral form must have predated Christianity.)   So do not allow the visions of St. John the Divine to prejudice your understanding of this Great Cosmic Noumenon.

As the Goddess Kerridwen has her chariot pulled by the dragons of Beli aloft and above Dinas Affaraon (the city of Emrys or Ambrosius) in myth, the dragons, being winged, convey the attribute of soaring spirituality of a noumenon to their owner.

They also denote the fleetness of conscious thought of which Beli is the anthropomorphism but more of this later.

GWYN according to Squire, Rolleston et al. is the ruler of Hades.  Here we have a misnomer as the average person, with years of Christian prompting, equates Hades with Hell, a domain of everlasting punishment and torture.  In actuality Hades was not a domain but the Greek ruler of the realm of those who immediately had departed this life.  Nevertheless he was not considered to be death itself as death was the Greek god Qanatoj (Thanatos).  This is made clear in the soliloquy by the ghost of Poludoros in the Eurypides' drama Hecuba: "Ἥκω νεκρῶν κευθμῶνα καὶ σκότου πύλας λιπών, ἵν᾽ Ἅιδης χωρὶς ᾤκισται θεῶν" - "I come (λιπών) leaving the vaults of the dead and the gates of darkness where Hades dwells (χωρὶς) apart from the other gods." So too Gwyn roams the etheric realms even up to the subtlest noumenal plateau.

Here, however, is only part of the picture and a mere assumption.  Gwyn (Old Welsh 'gwynn') means 'white' and also 'blessed', a title conveying a certain special position in the scheme of the pantheon bearing in mind that this appellation often denoted the privileged place of the 'firstborn' of families.

Gwyn, then, is the firstborn of Dôn and Beli, bearing the full name of Gwyn ap Nudd (Gwyn son of Nudd).  'Nudd' is a corruption of the Welsh 'Nyddwr' (spinner).   The Spinner, she who spins Y Gwe (the web) on which manifestation rests is, of course, Dôn.  Being the firstborn, Gwyn is the necessary power that has overview of manifestation and beyond in two distinct ways: -

1) y porthawr, gate keeper of the doorway to manifestation (the power behind fecundity) and

2) y porthawr, gate keeper of the portal to a post-death stratum for all outmoded creations.  Textual analysis will verify both of these hypothetical functions. 

He describes himself as "The lover of Kreiddylad, daughter of Lludd."

In the Red Book of Hergest there appears a lengthy description of his wooing of Kreiddylad  and how he is destined to compete for the lady's hand every First of May until doomsday. (5b)

The First of May in Keltic folk customs was the day dedicated to fertility - that of people, animals and crops.  The festival was known as 'Y Briodas Lân', The Sacred Marriage between sun and earth.  This, then, would confirm the fertility aspect or fecundating principle.  The overt names of the festivals given as this dissertation flows are but logical descriptors, the real names used by Y Plant Dôn remaining hidden for obvious reasons. 

Certainly he is Governor of Fecundity but as birth to the physical realm = death to the higher realms of spirit and vice-versa, he is also the Guide, not to death but to the transition for soul & spirit for all levels of manifestation that have become outmoded.  This is especially noticeable on the physical plane where the spirit is liberated from the soul on the second death for further growth - even supernovae become the future stellar nurseries.  And, as all that comes into manifestation sees death on the far horizon even at the moment of birth, he is, therefore, the Power which clears away before the advancing tide of cosmic evolution on all levels.  He has some similarity to the King of Death in Vedic philosophy (6) and indeed the Greek Hades.

This again may be a sweeping statement which requires further investigation.  Our evidence may be found in poem number thirty-three of the Black Book of Caermarthen. (6a)

The poem is a dialogue between Gwyn and the mythical prince Gwyddneu Garanhir.  Within the poem Gwyn recounts his unique experiences:-

"Mi awum iny lle llas guendolev.
 Mab keidav colowin kertev.
 Ban ryerhint brein ar crev."

(I have been in the place where was slain Gwendoleu, 
The son of Ceidaw, the pillar of songs, 
When the ravens screamed over blood.)

"Mi awum in lle llas bran.
 Mab ywerit clod lydan.
 Ban ryerint brein garthan."

(I have been in the place where Bran was slain, 
The son of Gweryd, of far-extending fame, 
When the ravens of the battle-field screamed.)

"Mi awum lle llas llachev.
 Mab arthur uithir ig kertev.
 Ban ryreint brein ar crev."

I have been where Llachau was slain,
The son of Arthur, extolled in songs,
When the ravens screamed over blood.

"Mi awum lle las meuric.
 Mab karreian clod edmic.
 Ban ryreeint brein ar cic."

(I have been where Meurig was slain, 
The son of Carreian, of honourable fame, 
When the ravens screamed over flesh.)

Finally he gives his title: 

"Mi awum lle llas milguir
 Bridein or duyrein ir dehev.
 Mi. wi. wiv. vintev. y aghev."

(I have been where the soldiers of
Prydain were slain, From the East
To the South.  I am alive, they in death!)

The raven is the bird essentially associated with death in most cultures and the British or Keltic is no exception.  C.G. Jung assumed this 'guider of souls' to be a psychic factor that lies twixt conscious and unconscious levels of the mind.  In dreams and in myths it is glimpsed as a wise man e.g. The hermit of the Tarot or the Keltic Merlin or perhaps as an animal such as the hyena, raven, vulture or indeed a worm. The raven, as seen in the above stanzas or the worm in the following example from a modern script - Edgar Allan Poe's "The Colloquy of Monos and Una" will suffice.

"The nebulous light had been extinguished. That feeble thrill had vibrated itself into quiescence.  Many lustra had supervened.  Dust had returned to dust.  The worm had food no more." (6b)  The worm in this instance had acted, it was assumed, as the first agent in liberating the soul & spirit by devouring the physical body, the host in incarnate life.

As additional proof the words again fall to the Keltic Gwyn as he boasts of his dog thus:- "Handsome my dog and round-bodied and truly the best of dogs.  Dormarth (Dormach) his name." 

And 'Dormarth' in translation means 'Death's Door'.

Gwyn, then, is without doubt not only the fecundating principle but also The Lord of The Hunt (wherein that which is hunted or 'gathered in' includes the spirits and souls of mankind) - the Keltic Psychopompos.  He could be termed the engine which maintains the viability of the Cosmic system but much more of this later.

"The tides of beginning,
The chill dark river of ending,
Two sacred streams o'er which
Thou shalt watchful remain;
Lo be they seen on Thy brow
To their Source ever wending.

Arglwyd Korniog,
Lord of The Gates
Be Thy Name."

The above depiction of Gwyn shows the twin horns which represent His bifurcated functionality - that of governing the birth/commencement mechanism for each and every phenomenon (to be expanded later) and that of leading a departed soul & indwelling spirit to the afterlife.  Of course the Church swiftly perverted these two simple attributes in all elder Deities such as the rustic Hellenic Pan, the Indian Naigamesha, Herne the Hunter of the English wild wood, Banebdjedet of Lower Egypt, Cernunnos of the Continental Kelt, and many more into the base urges of animality. 

And so it was the early Christian Fathers who created the mental image of 'Owd Hornie', 'Owd Scratch' and 'Auld Nick' with devilish glee to terrorize the faithful and keep them thronging to the churches with the much-needed collections to sustain the corpulent clergy in their parasitic lifestyle!

Without this Force being born first, there would have been a measure of instability as the cosmos became progressively over-populated.  There would have been no mechanism to ensure that, on debilitation and decay of all forms whether of yocto or quasar dimensionality, the door would open to a 'clearing house' for effete material.  Cosmic gridlock could be a decided problem.

But in view of His bifurcated function it might be argued also that, without a birth/death mechanism, no Cosmos whatsoever could have appeared.

How did the Cosmos appear? Although the above illustration symbolizes what is considered by many to represent an explosion, a different concept is now held in science and the Big Bang theory is now under threat. 

As an explosion suggests that an object or substance exploded from one central point outward, the modern theory suggests that space itself expanded but not from one point.  

Paul Steinhardt, director of the Princeton Centre for Theoretical Science at Princeton University in Princeton, N.J. declared, "We actually observe that everything is moving away from everything else.  It's really about an expansion of the universe ." 

Quantum physicists now think that space is expanding everywhere in all directions equally.   This endorses the concept of The Dark Goddess expanding and extruding all things in the process but not from one specific centre.  This concept will be examined in depth at a later stage of this thesis.  It further suggests that the vision of the Kymraec y gwe (the web) is indeed valid, as I said, the Cosmos has a central point which is everywhere i.e. whose points of reference or centres of expansion are infinite within the noumenal framework of what is the space/time continuum, the home of the protylic denizens.   Each of these myriad points is the locus where simultaneously Beli Mawr encourages Dôn to expansive activity facilitated by Her Math (action/reaction) proclivity.

PENARDDUN is not mentioned by Graves

Dr. Anne Ross in 'Pagan Celtic Britain' similarly ignores the lady.  Squire admits that very little is known about her while Rolleston makes no attempt whatsoever to identify her function.

Penarddun is the daughter of Dôn.  In Welsh, 'pen' = 'head' and 'ar'+'ddu' in Middle Welsh = 'she'+'dark'.  She is, by this token, She who is head/ruler of darkness, i.e. Queen of the Night or Moon Goddess.  Such is the simple concise explanation.

Nevertheless we shall return to Penarddun at a later point to reassess this statement in relation to her consort Llyr Lediaeth. 

They have one son Manawydan who appears to be a marine Deity but no mention is made of him in the Mabinogi of Math.  His own tale is well developed in the Mabinogi of Manawydan fab Llyr but there is little mention of him as a grandson of Dôn.  Although his father Llyr was in incomer to Y Plant Dôn via marriage, this should not detract any genetic rights from Manawydan who takes his lineage from a matrilineal family. 


appears to stem from the imperfect tense of the Middle Welsh verb 'gwybot' (to know).  'Gwydwyn' = 'I was knowing'.  Indeed the older form of the name was Gwydyon which reveals the second 'y' of the 'gwydwyn' root. (7)

Similar to the verses of Taliesin the poet which begin "I have been", signifying a lengthy number of existences or incarnations, the tense 'I was knowing' denotes a certain perpetuity of conscious existence with a portal to present connections.  The perfect tense 'I have known' would denote a continuity in a past which is now over, whereas 'I knew' would signify 'on one occasion' or 'at one time'.  This in Welsh is the preterite tense which is similar to the Greek first (sigmatic) and second aorist.  Not only is the immortality of a god revealed, therefore, but also the never-ending knowledge, wisdom and seership. And the bestower of seership and enlightenment in ancient times was the Sun God.

Squire, however, identifies him with Odin, as does Graves, and Spence as "the druid of the gods." Christine Hartley makes him a god of poetry while Dr. Ross makes no attempt, strangely enough, at any classification.

When we examine the text of the myth we find Gwydion to be a master of illusion par excellence.  In his ploy to obtain the pigs of Pryderi by barter he "made by magic twelve stallions and twelve greyhounds ............. twelve collars and twelve leashes upon them, and anyone that saw them would not know but they were of gold; and twelve saddles upon the horses, and every part where there should be iron upon them was all of gold."  (And all of these from toadstools.) 

The colour gold is that of the sun while the repeated number twelve signifies the twelve hours of daylight at Alban Eilir (Spring Equinox) after which the sun takes predominance in the twenty-four hours.  Twelve may also allude to the twelve month year which is the complete earth cycle in its orbiting interaction with the sun (usually and erroneously alluded to as a sun cycle). although, in ancient times, the 13 lunar month year may have held sway but was deliberately changed as the story-tellers accepted modernity. 

(As an insert here we could view the gifts made from toadstools as hallucinations caused by Gwydion spiking the drink of Pryderi and his retinue with a decoction of the Fly Agaric, the red-capped hallucinogenic mushroom.  This is where we find another sense of the expression 'bardic triads' - a) a simple story, b) a story with hidden meaning and c) hints at practical metaphysical methodology in the Mysteries.)

On a number of occasions I have been asked to explain the duel between Gwydion and Pryderi and the loci mentioned in the encounter.  This was the sequella of Gwydion’s plot to steal the pigs from Pryderi Prince of Dyfed in the South.

There was a hosting of the Southern Warband to pursue Gwydion and the men of Gwynedd with the intention of retrieving the pigs which had been obtained by trickery.  Gwydion had already predicted this in order that the host of Gwynedd led by Math would rise to counter this incursion, leaving Kaer Dathyl unattended and the young Goewin unsupervised and vulnerable to Gilfaethwy’s rape.

Should one read the Mabinogi of Math, this convoluted inset brings into the tale Arianrhod, her pregnancy and the delivery of the twin sons Dylan and Llew – two important members of Y Plant Dôn, as we shall soon discover.  The skills of the cyfarwydd (story-teller) are seen to demonstrate the zenith of complexity in his art.  Be all this as it may, it does reveal further solar aspects in the tale.

The first clash of warbands came at Maenawr Benardd where Pryderi’s host suffered great casualties.  This reveals that Gwydion’s strength was in the North as the sun is well below the horizon at night.  ‘Maen’ means slender and ‘awr’ is an hour, demonstrating that the battle was at Maenawr, the small hours - probably twixt 1a.m. and 2 a.m.  In addition, the star pattern known as the Plough is easily recognised as a useful pointer to the North in the night sky and has the title of the Great Bear.  Benardd is the mutated Penardd where Pen is head, chief or great and ardd is a bear, hence the Great Bear.  Strangely enough in present-day Penarth’s High Street there is a hostelry called The Bear’s Head!

As the Southern Warband retreated and although the Gwynedd host held hostages of Pryderi’s men, the Gwynedd warriors who followed persisted in shooting arrows at Pryderi’s troops.   Most likely as it approached noon or early afternoon it was suggested that the outcome of the entire issue be resolved by a duel between Pryderi and Gwydion to prevent further slaughter.  This was agreed and the duel took place at Melenrhyd which means a 'yellow ford'.   Gwydion would be at the zenith of his solar light by this time but the duel was lengthy, continuing until evening, the time when Gwydion’s failing light and strength was acronical. 

Therefore it was said that “by force of strength, and fierceness, and by the magic and charms of Gwydyon, Pryderi was slain”.  I feel that the meaning of this enchantment is, owing to the sun’s light being low in the sky, Pryderi was dazzled by this evening light, as any driver will agree, allowing Gwydion to deliver the death stroke.  A portion of the Alban Eilir festival, the Spring Equinox whence the light grows to defeat darkness, contains the following:- 

“There I exulted in the clash 
Of weapons as, like blist'ring lash, 
My mighty blows poured streams of red 
And sunset stained the river-bed. 
In twilight of my foeman's might, 
Mine eyes and inner-soul, alight 
With powers the Elder tribes command, 
Shot forth enchantment's searing brand.”

In this text the red of sunset combining with the imagery of a blood-stained ford and Gwydion’s power of enchantment, for which he was renowned, allude to the coup de grâce.

Perhaps this reinforces Gwydion’s solar identity and the emanation thereof (light) or may be a simple event within a brief campaign but with this hidden meaning for those who could determine the subtlety of the story-teller.  I leave the reader to decide.

In his quest to have his son Llew armed by Arianrhod, Gwydion conjured up an invading host which brought alarm to Arianrhod and her court, during which clamour Arianrhod armed Llew, as was the original intention.  Also note that this was done at sunrise.  The creation of Blodeuwedd from flowers was also Gwydion's doing, aided by the magic of Math.   (The forming of woman for the use of man at this point in the myth simply heralds the coming patriarchal epoch when the Matriarchal Harmonies would be rejected.)

And what but the sun and its emanations blind us to the reality of cosmic infinitude by blotting out the vista of deep space and its contents during the daylight hours ("Behold your God" may have been averred by the druids of old) and thus it became the supreme 'Master of Illusion'.

To reinforce the solar persona we find in The Mabinogi tale that, in place of Math, Gwydion "would go the circuit of the land in his stead."   From an earth-based point of view, the sun appears to make a daily circuit of our earthly habitat.   Thus Gwydion fulfils the role of a solar deity.

Although Llew is yet to be discussed in detail, we should remember at this point and carry forward the thought that it was the enchantment of Gwydion which initiated the events that restored Llew to fullness of health and strength.

When analysing Llew's tale we shall realise that the sun god has an alter ego or perhaps 'aura' is the better description - Light which is the 'ripening factor'.

("Light is necessary to stimulate seed germination, along with water, oxygen and proper temperatures.  The periodicity of light is important as well as the intensity and quality.   As the developing seedling emerges from the seed coat, the shoot develops green chlorophyll, which needs light to activate the photosynthetic process within the chloroplasts.  The periodicity of the light allows the separation of light-dependent and light-independent phases of photosynthesis necessary for the production  of food for further growth of the wheat plant.  The quality of light is important in developing chlorophyll.  As the developing seedling emerges from the seed coat, the shoot develops green chlorophyll, which needs light to activate the photosynthetic process within the chloroplasts.  The periodicity of the light allows the separation of light-dependent and light-independent phases of photosynthesis necessary for the production of food for further growth of the wheat plant. The quality of light is important in developing chlorophyll content."
 by  Carolyn Csanyi - eHow Contributor

I am reluctant indeed to bring Christianity into a Pagan exposition but it may assist in the explanation and identification of the Light principle.  Bearing in mind that the Light or aura of Gwydion is not the incinerating nuclear solar furnace but the gentle warmth that bathes the Earth in life-giving rays, it can be regarded as feminine.  Although this concept does not appear within the legend of Math, I feel that we must, as modernists in the realm of story telling, take it upon ourselves to mutate the story, even as an earlier cyfarwydd may have done on occasion, naming this Light the Lady of Light or Heulwen (Welsh for sunlight - a feminine word and even a girl's name).  Where does Christian philosophy enter here?

Solar Light, that is the Holy Spirit (appearing as tongues of fire upon the apostles) and that even conceives the Corn God which will be born of the virgin Earth, is feminine in Hebrew - Ruach.  So I am content with the gentle warmth of Spring and Summer to be feminine.


is the one deity adopted into the family of Dôn as husband of Penarddun.  Although the Middle Welsh 'llyry' means tracks, we must remain alive to one development of nouns ending in 'y' - the deletion of the terminal letter giving us 'llyr'. (8)

'Llediaeth' means 'strange sound/speech' or 'foreign accent', as an outsider may have been considered when married into another tribe or warband.

Llyr Llediaeth is, therefore, 'tracks of strange sound/speech' which aptly describes the sea of which he is the deity.

(Listen to the tinkle of water at the lake's margin or the 'sheesh' of water at the incoming tide or the mighty sound of gigantic banking waves of an ocean then try to deny that this element is communicating with you in its own language.)

And the Sea God in most myths is mate of the Moon Goddess - she who draws the sea to her in mundane tidal mechanics.  This espousal is very clear in the various sources of the myth - he is consort to Penarddun.
Happily most writers concur that he is a marine deity.


is usually translated via the Modern Welsh as 'arian' meaning 'silver' and 'rhod' meaning 'a wheel'.  This has led many erroneous conclusions that she is the Moon Goddess and, as we have clearly shown, Penarddun is the Keltic Moon Goddess without doubt.

Graves vaguely refers to her as a triple goddess while Squire and Ross perpetuate the 'silver wheel' translation.

Let us for a moment review the validity of this translation, keeping in mind that the adjective in Welsh follows the noun it qualifies.  The name or phrase, then, would logically appear as 'wheel of silver' or 'wheel the silver'- 'of' can be redundant in Welsh.  Her name would be, therefore, 'Rhod arian' or 'Rhod yr arian' (Rod aryant in Middle Welsh) which is not the case.  This should lay the ghost of this erroneous derivation once and for all.

One must, however, return to the Old/Middle Welsh form of her name which was 'Aranrot'. We read in Ifor Williams' 'Pedeir Keinc y Mabinogi' (Caerdydd 1930):-

"a dyvot y drws porth Caer Aranrot, ef a'r mab yn y llong" - "and came to the entrance of the gate of Caer Aranrot, he and the boy and the ship",

"Cyrcha Aranrot ferch Dôn dy nith, merch dy chwaer" - "seek Aranrot, the daughter of Dôn, thy niece, thy sister's daughter" and

"Hwythau a ddaeth at Math mab Mathonwy, a chwyno'n ddicllon am rwystrau Aranrot a wnaethant," - "They went thereupon unto Math the son of Mathonwy, and complained unto him most bitterly of Aranrot." 

These are but three examples from many of the original form of the name in elder texts in the original language.

Now, when we see the Middle Welsh 'aran' meaning 'hill' (9) and 'rot' meaning 'circular', we arrive at the 'round hill' (Aranrot) as the correct translation (the adjective following the noun) and round hills always represented the pregnant belly or breasts of the Earth Goddess (vide The Paps of [Goddess] Anu - twin hills in County Kerry in Ireland, The Paps of Morrighan in Ireland, Silbury Hill in England, The Sleepimg Beauty Mountain on the Isle of Lewis in Scotland and many more).


Silbury Hill, England

Paps of Anu, Ireland

She is without doubt the Earth Goddess and mate of the Sun God Gwydion to whom she bears twin sons in the myth.


or Dylan Eil Ton in its fuller form, is often thought of as the Sea God.  The 'dyl' root in Middle Welsh meant 'deserving', i.e. 'rightful' and 'ton' as we have seen means 'a wave'.  Nevertheless he is not the wave (Sea God) but one whose rightful place is in the wave - the Fish God, a necessary deity for coastal peoples.  He is later sacrificed by his uncle Gofannon that his people might live - his death coming by the spear, a logical early method of fish harvesting.

Although this must have been a scene within the oral form of the myth it does not appear in the written form.  Nevertheless, the poet Taliesin was wont to retain the event for posterity in his Marwnat (deathsong) Dylan Eil Ton (Book of Taliesin poem No. 43) (9.0) which runs:-

"Py delifmaes pwy ae swynas ynllaw trahael.
Neu gynt noc ef. pwy uu tagnef ar redyf gefel.
Gwrthrif gwaftrawt gwenwyn awnaeth gweith gwythloned. 
Gwanu dylan. Addythic lan. treif ynhytyruer.
Ton iwerdon. Athon yanad. athon ogled.
Athon prydein toruoed virein yn petwared." 

The literal translation of these two essential lines is given usually as:-

"An opposing groom, poison made, a wrathful deed,
Piercing Dylan, a mischievous shore, violence  freely flowing."

This may reflect the Middle Welsh, word by word and phrase by phrase, but the poet's skill was to generate the seriousness of the occasion by meter, alliteration and intensity in his own language.  I prefer to give a more idiomatic rendering, cancelling the transferred epithet "mischievous shore" and causing "piercing" to be replaced with "spearing" as a descriptor of the weaponry.  I have changed "poison made" to "rising venom", quite logically as the mortal wounding by spear requires not the application of poison to the weapon.  The poison or venom in this way reflects the person's hightened emotions.  In this wise we have a more fluent and understandable line to the translation without attenuation of energy in the poet's rendition:- 

"An aggressive fellow with rising venom unleashed a violent assault, 
Spearing Dylan viciously from shore with wanton savagery."

Squire, Rolleston, Spence et al. consider him to be, however, a sea deity despite the stanza in the Black Book of Caermarthen which states: "Yn y gwna tonn tolo, Bedd Dylan Llanveuno" The translation runs "Where the wave speaks is the grave of Dylan at Llanfeuno" - his place of death being the wave within the sea, i.e. where he is speared as a fish by his uncle Gofannon. 


a lesser personage in the legend, appears to be the 'smith' of the warband, a descriptor agreed by most writers and derived from the Middle Welsh 'gof' - a smith.


or Llew Llaw Gyffes in full, has been translated frequently as the 'skillful hand of light'.  The mistake comes by spelling the original form of the name (Lleu) as 'Llew' which can mean light.  The modern meaning of Llew is 'lion' which provides another translation: 'The lion with the steady hand'.  All writers fall into one or other trap and usually give Llew the erroneous title of Sun God except Dr. Anne Ross who maintains he is a god of the Mercury type.

At least Squire admits that the pagan tradition had become obsolete before myths were written down and suggests very logically that 'lleu' meaning 'light' had passed from use.  In this case the scribe must have substituted a word which he knew - 'llew' for the 'lleu' which was unintelligible to him.

In the many repetitions of the tale and the personal embellishments by the multitude of bards prior to the penning of the myth, it is obvious that his prowess in archery in the story line was mutated to rationalise the "skillful hand" concept.   Squire, then, is absolutely correct in the above observation that the word 'lleu' had been lost in the mists of time.   This will become abundantly clear as our research progresses.  In the English translations the name is always Llew, whereas in the original Middle Welsh version it is ever Lleu.

Llew was but a boy, however, and fair of hair when named.  In the older Middle Welsh, 'lleu' was the adjective 'light' and denoted fairness of hair, while 'llaw', although meaning 'hand' in Modern Welsh, meant 'small' or 'young' in Middle Welsh.

'Gyffes' is of the genre of Old Welsh and Middle Welsh equative adjective which was achieved by prefixing a noun by 'kyf' which meant 'of the same' - e.g. Old Welsh 'kyfred', at the same speed.   In this way the Middle Welsh abounded in adjectives such as 'kyfliw' (of the same colour as), 'kyfoet' (of the same age as) and 'kyflet' (of the same width as).(9a)  All are now obsolete in Modern Welsh, 'kyf' remaining only in the following words: 'cyfiaith' (of the same language), 'cyflin' (parallel), and 'cyffelybu' (to compare).  When used as a proper name the 'k' would again have been softened or mutated to a 'g' to provide the 'Gyf' prefix.

The second syllable 'fes' is derived from the Old Welsh 'uet' or 'vet' meaning 'up to', i.e. qualifying height or distance.  In later Middle Welsh the 'vet' became 'fet' or 'fes' (the 'f' being sounded as a 'v') and now meant 'height encountered'.

In "The White Book Mabinogi" by J. Gwenogvyrn Evans (Pwhelli 1907) we find "fes bore" - 'height of morning'.  This too is obsolete and, therefore, forgotten.

It has been forgotten also that, similar to the custom of softening consonants as a classical language developed - e.g. as qalatta (thalatta), the sea, in Homeric Greek became qalassa (thalassa) in Attic Greek), the terminal 't' in Old Welsh often became 's' or 'd' in Middle and Modern Welsh, hence 'fet' becoming 'fes'.

We note that in the first poem of Taliesin, line 2 which runs: "Kanyt geu gofyget."  'Kanyt' meaning 'because' becomes 'canys' in Modern Welsh with the mutated 't' and the obsolete 'k'.

When connecting these short expressions together, using the earlier form of his name, the correct translation of Lleu Llaw Gyffes should be "Of the same height as a fair young boy."

Now we must ask: "Who is he that is the son of The Sun/Light God and The Earth Goddess who is the same height as a fair young boy?"

The myth itself provides ample clues to assist in resolution of the problem.

1. Llew was hidden on birth.
2. He may be named only by his mother.
3. He may be equipped with arms on his coming of age only by his mother.
4. He is cut down in the prime of life.

1. What is hidden in the earth once it has been born?  Seeds of grain retained for the next year's sowing.

2. How may one identify the crop?  When Mother earth has allowed it to rise above ground and mature to an identifiable stage and be named.  The naming of a child by the mother was quite logical in Keltic society where the identity of the father may be unknown.  The child always took its identity from the mother's bloodline.

3. In Britain the term 'corn' is given to wheat, barley and rye alike.  In the seed-head of wheat the seeds are protected by a stiff, spiked sheath.  That of barley and rye are in like manner protected by long spear-like awns.  Each, then, has arms or weaponry on maturation for protection against the birds of the air once Mother Earth has permitted a requisite stage of growth.  This explains Arianrhod's arming of Llew in the Fourth Branch Mabinogi which was another Keltic custom - the arming of man by his mother when reaching maturity (i.e. coming of age).

Lastly the field of corn is 'the same height as a fair young boy' and, bearing in mind the adjective 'fair', of the same colour as such a youth's hair.

In the Book of Taliesin poem No. 13 is mentioned "eur biben llew" - the golden pipes of Llew which now we see refer to the stalks of corn, although Lewis Spence erroneously states that they "obviously allude to some yellow flower." (vide The Mysteries of Britain by Lewis Spence, page 195)

4. Llew is clearly the Corn God and like his Father the Sun and its light who provide health and strength for the living, he, when he is cut down, also provides health and strength in the form of food.  He dies that we may continue to live.

Arianrhod is the mother of these twins, both sired by Gwydion.  Yet following the rape of Goewin, Math's footholder, a replacement maiden is required to continue in Math's service and Gwydion suggests Arianrhod for the task.  When asked by Math if she be a maiden, she answers in the affirmative.  Maidenhood or virginity in Keltic culture simply meant being a woman who was not pair-bonded.  I do not use the word 'married' as I doubt there was such a formal concept.  This is similar to the Roman description of a woman being virgo (i.e. unmarried) or virgo intacta (unmarried yet untouched by man).  Nevertheless a woman could be a maiden (unattached) yet choosing to be a mother.

As an inset, the place of Goronwy must be examined - a point of neglect by most authors.

I maintain that Goronwy, although appearing as a separate entity, is Llew's inner self or doppelgänger if you will, a form of bilocation - i.e. the seed which on threshing is loosed from the chaff, the effect of the blow from the poisoned spear in the tale.  The chaff which flies up into the air on winnowing is represented by the transmogrification of Llew into an eagle following the wounding by the spear and his immediate flight aloft.  Thereafter in that accipitrine form he logically becomes the "shell/husk of former fullness" as the myth progesses, which diseased state is described thus in the ceremony of Y Fedel Wenith (The Wheat Reaping):-

"Mourn ye the Prince 
To Death's sanctuary borne 
On eagle's pens; 
To remain in bird-like form 
Upon this earth, 
Changed to a shell 
Of former fullness."

When Llew demands that Goronwy stand in the same place as he had done to take the fateful blow of retribution, he permits his inner self, the seed to die.  The stone which Goronwy places between himself and the blow is, of course, the miller's stone (carreg y melin, not whetstone, agaten - f in Old Welsh) which grinds the seed to flour.

Why do we equate Goronwy with the inner self or seed?  When we separate 'Goron' from 'wy' we find the answer. 'Goron' is 'coron' meaning 'a crown'.  'Y Goron' is 'the crown' with the 'c' mutated to a 'g' as is the case after the definite article.  The 'y' is dropped to create a proper name leaving the mutated 'Goron'.

'Wy', as we have seen is 'egg' or 'seed'.  Therefore 'Goron-wy' is the 'Crown of seed' which is the head of the corn.

The story of Llew is acted out at Y Fedel Wenith on the eve of August 1st when the psychodrama concerning the cutting down of The Corn God is designed to ensure a bountiful harvest in mid-September.  The remainder of the tale is completed at Alban Elfed, the Autumnal Equinox, which is the Harvest thanksgiving feast. (10)

Here then is the down-to-earth portrayal of sacrifice, death and resurrection, although we have to come to terms with the story-teller's complication of bifurcating the persona of Llew.  The Corn God is sacrificed that his people may live by eating the bread made from his milled body which is the grain.  Sufficient seed, however, is retained for the Spring planting that at the following harvest He is seen to rise up strong as before revealing that His life is indeed everlasting.

What also may be extracted from the myth is how the logical progression of childhood from reliance upon the crèche society of the family through initiation into manhood and the return to the family as  the hero/victor/epitome of success does not manifest in this instance. In our myth Lleu is reared by his father in the splendid environment of Kaer Dathyl but his transformation into manhood with all the striving, yes and battling, to achieve success, developing character, attitudes and values have been denied him. 

His lands have not been gained through battle or even earned as we have seen - Why', said Math, 'I will give him the very best Cantref for a young man to have'.  Even the joys of courtship have been denied as Math and Gwydyon fashion a wife from flowers to complement his ménage.  Now we have an adult who has never faced the challenges, fears, character-building that the doorway/initiation to adulthood can bring.  He has left his childhood alma mater to have her replaced by an alternative alma mater, his uncle's benevolence and supervision, thus encapsulating him in an extended childhood, unaware of the pitfalls of adult life that could have been identified and avoided by experience.  In modern parlance, he was a child driving his pedal car along a motorway!

Be all that as it may, there is a warning from the very mouth of the cyfarwydd, a gift to modern society in the stepping stones o'er which to walk through life:-

1.childhood on our mother's knee - the real tangible alma mater.

2. primary education - learming the symbology of communication - a. replacement alma mater.

3. secondary education - a comfortable environment where we are indoctrinated by another alma mater.

4. university or college - a continuation of the protracted/protected life
of education -
yet another alma mater.

5. entry into professionalism/business/trade BUT all the while under the umbrella of the state via:- social security, job centres, local council needs assessment, disability care, housing/advice centres etc., health.
care, insurance, superannuation, state pension - indeed everything
"from the cradle to the grave" - yes, our lifetime's alma mater.

In short, we have never grown up!  Humanity has attained endemic
psychological dependency.

This brings us to yet another deity from the Welsh 'amaeth' - agriculture and 'amaethu' - to till.  His name is Amaethon, a God of agriculture or farming, that part of Arianrhod's persona which is the topical husbandry aspect of Nature.

The final personage mentioned in the legend is Gilfaethwy.   The most cogent word is cilydd - a fellow whence comes the prefix gil which mutates to y gil, the fellow.  The 'faeth' syllable in Welsh denotes 'plan', 'spoil' or 'plunder' and certainly it was he who planned the rape of 'wy', the young or immature Goewin.

The deflowering of Math's troediog or footholder (troediawc in Old Welsh) was his male chauvanistic plunder that opens the door to a patriarchal culture!  As the older matriarchal harmonies dictated that the woman chose her mate, Gilfaethwy was simply a tool to explain changes in society at that time.

The forming of a wife from flowers (Blodeuwedd) by Math and Gwydion for Llew to negate the rheg (Welsh) or geis (Old Irish), a magical curse to cause misfortune in one's time-line, suggests that this was indicative of the establishment of patriarchal culture which subtends the following:-

a) The forming of the wife (Blodeuwedd) from flowers prevented her growing according to her own true and indeed composite nature.

b) She was moulded by the dictates of men to be what, by nature, she was not.

c) She was transformed, therefore, against her true will and thus became not only untrue to Llew but also to herself, nevertheless retaining the old custom of the woman deciding the mate of her choice.

Before leaving the inset of Blodeuwedd's role in Llew's part of the Mabinogi of Math, let us disentangle the twisting roots of this lady's name.  In the translation of this portion of the myth we find this:-

"Now Blodeuwedd is an owl in the language of this present time, and for this reason is the owl hateful unto all birds. And even now the owl is called Blodeuwedd."  From these two sentences one is encouraged to assume that Blodeuwedd was the Old & Middle Welsh word for 'owl'.  The original Welsh text, however, runs as follows:-

"Sef gelwir Blodeuwedd yn dylluan yn ein iaith nawr. Ac oherwydd hyn mae'n atgas gan yr adar eraill y dylluan ac hyd-heddiw gelwir y dylluan yn flodau-wedd." The start of the first sentence reads "now Bldeuwedd is yn dylluan" (the owl) and the ending of the second sentence is "y dylluan (the owl) is Blodeuwedd".  We see herein, therefore, that tylluan (yn dylluan fem. when mutated after the definite article) was the Old, Middle and indeed is the Modern Welsh for 'owl'.  The alternative word for 'owl' in the earlier forms of the Brythonic language was and in the contemporary form still is cuan.

Rolleston(11) perpetuates that Blodeuwedd means 'flower face' while Charles Squire(12) is more interested in inventing the concept of Gwydion as sun god chasing Blodeuwedd across the sky, scattering the stars of the Milky Way, rather than investigating the name of our wife whose penchant is apistia, i.e. being a bedswerver.  We do remember, however, that Squire identified Gwydion with Odin which reveals the inconsistency in Squire's research.  Graves(13) is too occupied in making analogies of Blodeuwedd with one of the three female observers of the crucifixion and with a personage in the Epic of Gilgamesh to investigate the meaning of the name. I have still to find a mention of Blodeuwedd in the works of Anne Ross while John and Caitlin Matthews regurgitate the 'flower face' descriptor.

Certainly the Blodeu part of the name is concerned with flowers as we can demonstrate:-

In Old and Middle Welsh 'blodeuaw' = to flourish or bloom.

The following are in Modern Welsh and are but two from a list of connected words:- 

blodeuglwm [m.] = bunch, nosegay, bouquet
.....blodeuo (verb) = to flower, bloom, flourish, blossom
This leaves us with the final wedd which does not mean 'face'!  The word denotes an end, death or termination:- diwedd = end, conclusion; a final end; the end of one's life i.e. death or even the end of a meal.  The 'diwedd' also marks the end of something in time e.g. the 'end of a semester'.  'o'r diwedd' = 'at last', like the Greek teloj (telos)) and the modern wedi or the Old/Middle Welsh gwedy mean 'after' i.e. when something has finished, for example 'Gwedy Haf' meaning 'after Summer' or 'Summer's End'.

We should note that in the original text above, the lady's name is given as 'yn flodau-wedd' - the hyphented separation allowing one to dwell on the 'wedd' which not only means 'ending' but is placed after the 'Blodeu' rather than before it, reinforcing the concept of termination.   So Blodeu, the bouquet of flowers was transformed by Math and Gwydion into a woman thus terminating her natural state.  Again, on account of her infidelity and the planning of the wounding of Llew, Blodeuwedd's physical state of a human wife was forced to undergo a second metamorphosis into an owl, thus ending her human existence.

And as Gwydion effected this second magical change, he, as the Sun God, banished her from the realm of daylight, condemning her to perpetuate her whoredom as a 'woman of the night' but in shape of a feathered bird of prey.

This transformation was rather paradoxical as strigiformes are by nature what Blodeuwedd was not - monogamous!  Surprisingly the modern Welsh for 'whore' or 'prostitute' has ignored the tale of Blodeuwedd completely and instead has opted for the French word 'putain' but with a Welsh pronunciation.

For those readers who would like to savour an Old Welsh text, here is stanza seven from Y Gododdin the epic penned by the poet Aneurin c. 600 a.d.:-

"Gwyr a aeth Ododin chwerthin wanar
 Disgynnyeis em bedin trin diachar
 Wy lledi a llavnawr heb vawr drydar
 Colovyn glyw reithuyw rodi arwar"

1a  The Western  Mystery Tradition by Christine Hartley (The Aquarian Press) 1968.
1b The White Goddess by Robert Graves (Faber & Faber) 1961.
1c  Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (Anchor Books) 1995.
 2. Shadow Matter & Psychic Phenomena by Dr. Gerhard Wassermann (Mandrake Press) 1993.
 3. Comparative religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker, Chapt. 8, v (CDM, California) 1992.
 4. The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain by Lewis Spence (The Aquarian Press) 1946.
 5. A Grammar of Middle Welsh by D. Simon Evans (The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1970.
5a Y Gododdin by Aneirin/ Edit A.O.H.Jarman (Gomer) 1988.
5b The Poetry in the Red Book of Hergest, Reproduced & Edited by J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Nabu Press) 2013.
 6. Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (CDM, California) 1992.
6a The Black Book of Carmarthen by John Gwenogvryn Evans (General Books LLC) 2009
6b Tales of Mystery and Imagination, 'The Colloquy of Monos and Una' by Edgar Allan Poe (The Folio Society, London) 1999. 
 7. A Grammar of Middle Welsh by D. Simon Evans (The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1970.
 8. ibid.
 9. The Poems of Taliesin, edited by Sir Ifor Williams, poem No. 1 line 20 (The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1968.
9.0 Marwnat Dylan Eil Ton (Book of Taliesin poem No. 43) - online.
9a  A Grammar of Middle Welsh by D. Simon Evans (The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1970.
10. Portal of The Keltic Gods by Mael Gwynedd (Excalibur) 1991.
11. Myths & Legends of The Celtic Race by T.W. Rolleston (Harrap & Co. Ltd)  1949 
12. Celtic Myth and Legend, Poetry & Romance by Charles Squire (Gresham) London 
13.The White Goddess by Robert Graves (Faber & Faber) 1961

The Castles

As each God or Goddess in the myth had his or her Kaer or Castle in which they held court to their elect, one must examine this elect which is on a different plane from humanity. They have been termed in Old Keltic/Welsh families as 'Y Perthynasau Mawr' - The High Kindred and, as such, occupy a distinct place in the hierarchy between the Gods and mankind, i.e. neither divine nor human. (vide "Portal of The Keltic Gods" by Mael Gwynedd, Excalibur, 1991.)  To these we shall return in the taxonomy.

The Keltic 'system' of Kaerau or Castles is less well known in Keltic mysticism as the brief comments on some by Lewis Spence will aver.  These Castles or realms may be termed hierarchical domains as they had direct bearing not only on the deities but also on the various stages of human existence.  Here follows a diagram of these domains with comments upon each.




    /     /     /     /

Royal Castle


Don & Beli

Domain of the Unmanifest

Fedwid 1

Castle of The Perfect Ones
Gwynfyd **

Don & Beli

Domain of those past incarnating

Revolving Castle



Domain between incarnations


Dread Castle



Domain of those newly departed

Fedwid 2

Castle of The Perfect Ones Abred

Don & Beli

Abstract Spiritual
(divine nucleus in man

Castle on high


Don (mature)

Concrete Spiritual



Castle of the zodiacal wheel




Don (mother)

Abstract Mental
(air triplicity)
(fire triplicity)
(water triplicity)
(earth triplicity)

Colur Gloomy Castle Abred Penarddun Concrete mental
Gwydion Sun God's Castle Abred Gwydion Emotional (desires)

Glass Castle in midst of the sea Abred

Llyr  Llediaeth Instinctual (passions)

Arianrhod Earth Goddess' Castle  Abred Arianrhod Material (deeds)

The Circles of Being (concepts of Keltic Druidic philosophy)

A. Ceugant The Circle of Divinity Kaer Rigor

B.Gwynfyd* The Circle of Felicity
(Gwynfa Gorawen)
Kaer Fedwyd 1
(The Paradise of Rapture)

C. Abred The Circle of Rebirth (incarnate life) Kylch Abred

D. Annwfn The Circle of neither Being nor Non-Being (where the soul goes to the second death leaving the spirit free to reincarnate.) Kaer Pedryfan

vide "The Mysteries of Britain" by Lewis Spence [Senate] 1994.)
The foregoing diagram with The Castle names fully translated should be self-explanatory but how the distribution was achieved should be demonstrated.

(The Planes of Existence on the human stratum which appear in the centre table [above] will be fully explained in Part 3 together with their origins and expansion.)

The best known Castle is Caer Sidin, the castle of the zodiacal wheel.  As the zodiac governs the four triplicities in human kind I attributed this to that portion of the human psyche which is the abstract mind.  As there are triplicities of  four elements, governance has been given to the Deities of Air, Fire, Water and Earth - Air (Moon Goddess), Fire (Sun God), Water (Sea God) and Earth (Earth Goddess).

Caer Ochren is the next most familiar, the Dread Castle which is the domain of Gwyn, the Psychopompos.  It must equate, therefore, with the domain of those newly shepherded by that Lord immediately on death.

Caer Wydyr, being the castle of reflection in the midst of the sea, logically belongs to The Sea God Llyr Who reflects the sun by day and the moon by night.

Caer Gwydion and Caer Arianrhod are obviously the respective domains of these Deities.

Caer Colur, the gloomy castle, may be equated with the darkest part of the twenty-four hours - night, ruled by The Moon Goddess and, therefore, the domain of the mind although this may be rationalising the appended 'gloom' descriptor. Nevertheless, there is no 'colur' in Old or Middle Welsh, meaning 'gloomy' or any related adjective but that omission may be explained by the inclusion in Modern Welsh of 'coluro' which must have its lost origin at an earlier epoch.  'Coluro', however, is a verb meaning to 'colour', 'paint' or 'conceal'.

Gloomy' or 'sad' = 'pruddaidd' as does 'trist' (obviously from the Latin), 'adfant' and others. Staying with the modern 'coluro', then, we may suggest that the germinal psyche paints or gives colour to each human, imparting a unique individuality.  This Caer, however, has sometimes been linked to Llyr and, on account of His pair-bonding with Penarddun, this linkage may be justified as the 'Llyr' concept is understood to reflect the subliminal gnosis or unconscious stratum of the human mind (especially the collective unconscious) which is concealed, this Deity ruling the instinctual realms as we shall postulate in the fullness of time.  These realms in many instances of human cerebration can be indeed dark and gloomy byways.

Lastly, how does one cause a satisfactory marriage twixt 'colour', 'paint' and 'conceal'?  Irrespective of the medium - whether paper, canvas, wood, perhaps an existing artwork or indeed the feminine phisiognomy, the painting of such conceals that which was hitherto revealed.

Caer Rigor, the Royal Castle, must be the domain of the Queen and Lord of the warband - Dôn and Beli Mawr.

Caer Fedwid 1* - The castle of the perfect ones must house those who have reached perfection, those who no longer need to reincarnate. 

Caer Fedwid 2 - I have equated it also with that part of oneself which seeks perfection (i.e. of Divine origin), the divine spiritual nucleus within each human.

Caer Fandwy or 'castle on high' I have identified with that which is 'on high' but not exactly perfect - the spiritual path trod by each human (sometimes called the spiritual ray) to achieve a unique burnishing whilst in incarnation.  All spiritual paths cannot be perfect as no one path has the entire truth and each may complement the other.

Caer Pedryfan, the revolving castle, is that caer which is stopped during the Great Assembly of the warband each year to permit the living to communicate with those long passed.  It is, therefore, the domain of those between incarnations.

The importance of these castles has never been demonstrated, unfortunately, in any meaningful way by any author dealing with Keltic mythology or British Mystery traditions.

From now on, the original and correct forms of the Deities' names will be adopted.


Before any formal classification be attempted, one must ask the all-important question:


As I mentioned at the beginning of this taxonomy, the question of what gods were was asked by the hero in Dion Fortune's book 'The Winged Bull'.  The reply given must surely be the best that one may ever find, "The gods are lenses that wise men have made through which to focus natural forces."

In short, with the mind's eye, an image is made.  With the less evolved mind this image may be of an animal form (as in the totemic wolf god of the Native American or Fenris of the early Norsemen).  With a more evolved mind, however, the image is in human form - an anthropomorphism. (1)  In Part One I have presented the Noumena and Protyles as possible images in picture form.

As the late William Gray, quabalist and author, concisely and eruditely stated, the image is a composite creation:-

"A concretion of consciousness, inspired by spirit, animated by soul,
moulded by mind and based upon body."

We all make our own personal and collective images.  Children create imaginary friends and believe in Father Christmas - an image created by adults to encapsulate the ideas of jollity, generosity and benevolence, all abstractions which would be difficult to comprehend by the child's mind. Of course in developmental psychology, Piaget avers that abstract concepts are comprehended by children aet. c.11.5 and over.  vide "An Outline of Paiget's Developmental Psychology" by Ruth M. Baird. R&KP London. 

Brand images on the commercial front (e.g. the Jolly Green Giant on the can of sweet corn) and National figures such as the American Uncle Sam and the English Britannia are the results of similar exercises.

This image once formed, which is now on an inner-plane level, is given the requisite attributes which it is felt the god should possess.  So, should we create an image of a god of battle, it must be the ultimate fighting machine with cosmic proportions of battle skill, agility, endurance, courage, perseverance, invincibility, strength, stature and musculature, ferocity and weaponry.

The image to the right could be the form of Gwydyon in His aspect of Brenhin Cadeu, King of Battles.  The more we can pour in mentally, the more perfect the god will become.  This includes the visual and tactile aspects of armour, colour, facial expression of battle-rage and even the roaring war cry of the god for the auditory input of imagery. 

When the members of an entire tribe or race have formulated the identical mental image,a warrior had but to visualise the form of the god and draw the radiating essence to himself to prepare for battle.  The process was a two way exercise - reciprocity.  The better the image made by the worshippers, the stronger the essence upon which they could draw.  The more charged uplift they received when visualising and invoking, the output achieved meant the more power the god form received from the worshipers.  (Metaphysical Law of Reciprocal Action.)

There have been many tales concerning "angels" or "ghost troops" who have appeared to grant assistance in battles - some tales being considered myths with no authentication, others considered factual with official reports following in their wake.  This could perhaps be the sequella of such image building where the prayers of the faithful about to join battle could merge with the prayers or invocations by relatives on the home-front, all linking with the energy of a telesmic/elemental image - a form of quantum entanglement

The first thing noticeable about such images is that they are categorical - a rain god, a sun god, a thunder god or a mother goddess etc..  And all are required to objectify on levels of existence that to humanity are subjective.  They are usually powers of nature - bearing in mind nature has an infinite canvas.

The gods, then, may be termed as concretions of consciousness each with a specialised function.  (Similar to the Archangels of Judaism and Christianity.)


Understanding Dôn - The Cosmic Composite ONE

There always was and always will be an Essence which you cannot see or understand.  Therefore it can be called Dark, i.e. hidden, as in "I’m telling you this in confidence so keep it dark."  Nevertheless it remains, in the state before manifestation, invisible, unknown and not understood.

If a Buddhist is questioned about his beliefs, he may say he believes in nothing.  By this he means the Dark Essence which is no thing, as we understand that to exist, a thing must be seen .   For this reason, many have called Buddhists atheists.  I refer to this as feminine, passive or negative Spirit.

The concept of Darkness or Blackness has its roots in the colour black which reflects nothing but absorbs and contains within itself - every possible hue of every colour.  So the Dark Essence contains within itself every possibility/probability which may remain hidden or become overt reality, whether to us conceivable or inconceivable.

The Black Madonna in Christian art (borrowed from the Middle Eastern concept of Isis) is one such popular figure.  Indeed the many wayside Middle Eastern shrines to Isis or to Isis and Horus became usurped by the Church as Mary or as Mary Qeotokoj (Theotokos i.e. Mother of God) with the baby Jesus in her arms.

It is the boundless All and is always One (the Metaphysical Law of Unity).  Science has now recognised the existence of this Essence.  The Knightrider News Service Washington reported on 24th June 1999: "In scientific papers and talks, the dark essence goes by a variety of exotic names: cosmic dark energy, vacuum energy and zero-point energy.  To describe it, cosmologists have even revived the ancient term ‘quintessence’ - the name medieval scholars gave to an invisible substance in which heavenly bodies supposedly floated."

From one of my short descriptors:-

"Darkness  in density abounded,
Thriving in profundity bizarre.
Extent and span e’en depth were naught
For neither was dimension understood
Nor aeon nor existence
Nor yet vibration brief,

As mystique and All were one.
Still 'All' was reverie and aspiration
Ere outspread this compact umbra
   Beyond the veilèd heart of Gwynfyd.

Gwynfyd = Paradise

What may be seen here is an analogous concept to the Qabalistic veils behind manifestation, even prior to the emerging space time continuum -  (ain) 'non-existence' and  (soph) 'without end' or 'limit' which gives us (ain-soph) 'endless non-being' where there is a void, i.e. no thing.

Having examined the Qabalistic analogy, perhaps we should look briefly at the Tibetan texts as translated by Madame Blavatsky and appear in her work "The Secret Doctine":-


"1. The eternal parent wrapped in her ever invisible robes had slumbered once again for seven eternities.

 2. Time was not, for it lay asleep in the infinite bosom of duration.

 3. Universal mind was not, for there were no Ah-hi to contain it.

 4. The seven ways to bliss were not. The great causes of misery were not, for there was no one to produce and get ensnared by them.

 5. Darkness alone filled the boundless all, for father, mother and son were once more one, and the son had not awakened yet for the new wheel, and his pilgrimage thereon."

Again we have the Eternal Parent, invisible and inert with Her consort  in non-existence, the trials of Maya (illusion) nowhere and these Parents and their offspring (manifestation) held in a noumenal singularity as a new Cosmos was yet unborn.  The wheel refers to a cycle in time which repeats endlessly and can be better understood by the Keltic Kylch Abred - Wheel of Rebirth (for human kind). 

Even Sanskrit has the terminology of the days and mights of Brahman who awakes at a Manvantaric dawn and whose consciousness maintains the universe until the next night of Brahman.

Our legends constantly reinforce this cyclical theme from the Earth Goddess Who returns from bondage in the Dark Lord's keep at the start of Spring (Dychweliad - Candlemas) to the monthly lunar cycles to - to what, cosmic cycles perhaps?  The Lord of Fate has spun his wheel but where will it stop - a "big crunch" or a "big rip"?  Mankind may have been lost for aeons in the pages of terrestrial history before an answer to this riddle is found.

This Dark Essence has dreams or plans which It "keeps in the dark."  But when it so desires, It brings a new cosmos, new galaxy, new star, new world, new species, new element or combination of elements, new concept, new anything into manifestation when the time is right and where we can see it "in the light of day."  Ah, here we see the meaning of "light" - not so much radiating light as we see from a sun, but "out in the open for all to see."  The Essence’s dreams/plans have become reality, externalised as 'Light Principles' but these extracts are NOT apart from the Essence but remain an extrusion of the Essence - the Latin extrudere to 'thrust out'.

I continue to refer to this Essence as a feminine and ethereal noumenon with the remit to flow and extrude but as a negative concept, not energy in itself but matter (Mater) which requires to be driven by the positivity of the ubiquitous male (God) energy or force.  Herein lies the essential dichotomic state but with the  twain forever bound in One to ensure y wawr cyntaf (the Manvantaric dawn) -  beginning of the continuum of manifestation.  (Metaphysical Law of Unity.)

This is not an act of creation as when one person takes materials to hand and fashions an object or, in flawed theological terms, when a separate mega-deity stirs some cosmic soup with a magic wand and supposedly creates a new galaxy.  This act is an outpouring of the Dark Essence so that every new metaphysical fact is a giving of Itself, an extension of Itself and is as Divine as the Essence Itself.  One may consider the birth of a baby to be of a similar nature - the mother gives of herself as the ovum and the father gives of himself as a spermatozoon.  These are emanations of the parents and fuse to become a new person.  This concept, therefore, is in no way related to 'creationism'.  'Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can but be transformed from one form to another'.  (First Law of Thermodynamics)

I quote from the writings of Dr. J.J. Williamson of The Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.:- (2b1)

"The Absolute is that ONE state wherein ALL within Infinity and Eternity co-exist.  That is to say, ALL things exist as one state or unit referred to to as the 'Absolute'. 

a) If ALL things are as ONE then they must co-exist, e.g. occupy the same infinitely dimensioned space, time and condition of being. 

b) If ALL things are as ONE then there is no REAL separation between them  by virtue of space, time or state, i.e. at the Absolute, differences of all kinds cease to exist as such. 

c) If ALL things co-exist, then any reaction in one thing or in any group of things less than the Absolute (the UNIT), implies a like reaction in ALL other things within the Absolute.  Obvious results of this fact appear as 'resonance' in physical science; 'like' states have sympathetic reactions." (The Law of Unity in Metaphysics.)

For the benefit of Jewish and Christian readers I quote from the Sepher Yetzira:- "Acath (feminine, not the masculine 'achad') Ruach Elohim Chiim" - "One is She (the Creative Force), the Spirit of the Elohim of Life."  Feminine 'Spirit' (singular) is Eloha but the plural ending here is the 'im' (masculine) denoting bipolarity (female & male) and plurality.  Here the ancient Israelites had not yet formalised the concept of a singular male mega-deity who invented the universe as a plaything to pass the time.  Indeed that אלוהים (Elohim) found in the first verse of Berashith in the Torah is still the word that opens most Jewish prayers.

An essential function of this Essence is to permeate and maintain the whole of this vast emanation or Cosmos and every structure therein, ensuring that each entity develops then remains true to its own nature. At the end of any structure's useful life, It withdraws the maintenance of Life Force by allowing the energy in that portion of manifestation to degrade due to the progressive increase in Entropy in order that this portion of Its emanation (spirit) be removed from manifestation and reabsorbed into The One.  In Physics, a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work is often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.   The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that "entropy always increases with time" and, therefore, age.

But often in the ensuing chaos, as when a star goes supernova, new order appears - cosmic dust clouds which become stellar nurseries incubating new stars.  And so chaos can be the precursor to order - order occurring because of chaos not despite chaos.  Here we see Prigogine's cyclical scenario:-

birth of a star >
   star life [stability]x  >
      turbulence [entropy - instability] >
         supernova [chaos] >
           dispersed cloud of elements [stellar nursery] >
              birth of a new star.

(vide Prigogine's definition of dissipative structures - 1977) (2c)

 (x Metaphysical Law of Equilibrium)

I feel that this Source-of-All may be visualised as an immense black sphere beyond our comprehension, the depth-point of which is everywhere and the perimeter of which is nowhere, denoting infinity - but more of this much much later.

The Source's attributes, therefore, may be considered in this wise:-   The Source is Mother - The Source is Father.  The Source is Me - The Source is You.   The Source is Brother - The Source is Sister.

And in this last statement, this fraternity or sorority applies to any conceivable or inconceivable metaphysical fact, remembering that such a fact is anything that is perceived or experienced by a sense or senses.  Each fact moves parametrically within its appointed environment. 

So, in reality, nothing exists except The Source - The All.  Yes, each of us may become egotheistic saying, but only.unto.ourselves on this one occasion and to be remembered, "I and my Parents are One", i.e. in common terms, "I am God"!  (Therein lies power)

Now I concern myself with only our manifested Cosmos, disregarding the prevalent modern Bubble theory of Multiverses where "there is no data to support 'the existence of multiple universes.'

"It’s an unproven hypothesis that Dr. Hawking arbitrarily elevates to genuine existence." [St. Clair, Pierre (2014-06-02). Cosmology On Trial: Cracking The Cosmic Code p.115]   It has sometimes been described by quantum physicists as being like the foam of an advancing tide,

whether the modern theory is the concept of a number of (mem)branes assembled as a series (aka the 'bulk') but in this case as a vertical arrangement which appears in sandwich formation as in the accompanying illustration,

whether the current theory is is yet another favourite of the quantum physicist where the membranes or 'branes', as is the shortened form of the expression, are conceived as being not in a vertical pile but horizontally like the opposite illustration.

whether we have another, the M theory (membrane or Matrix) which superceded the superstring TOE (theory of everything) i.e. a series of horizontal 'branes' which are found in the Higgs Field but which collide one with another to create a 'big bang' perhaps every trillion years providing new universes "born out of fire" - Ekpyrotic Universes.  Illustration below:- (the X is the point of collision.)


Edward Witten, the originator of this concept declares that M-theory is but an unverified hypothesis not a theory.  Nevertheless, in many discussions in the media, Professor Hawking seems to have usurped this concept by omitting all reference to Witten and terms it - yes, a 'theory'.)

whether there is yet another novel concept but with which I can relate as it is based upon the Fibonacci spiral. - a figure found in sacred geometry and displayed throughout nature e.g. in the shell of sea creatures, animal horn spirals etc..  

In appearance it could have an affinity with the ladies' fan when opened.

The Multiverse members could be understood to appear spiralling out from the centre.  The beauty of this concept is how it can satisfy the reverse enfolding to indulge in a 'big crunch' (at the end of a day of Brahma perhaps?),

BUT I concern myself, nevertheless, with the manifestation of our known Universe which is complicated enough for our our minds to comprehend.

This Dark Essence or Source, although always One (even as the joint parental roles of a household can be viewed as one unit e.g. 'the Smiths' or 'the Taylors' etc.), may be formulated as two Great Parents forever joined in a state of constant concubinage and in a perpetual discharge of orgasm which results in the continuing outpouring of new structures (whether visible or invisible) into manifestation. 

We call this Essence ''ffynhonnell  - 'source' in Welsh.  In Sanscrit we find prakrti (prakriti) - female or wife joined with purusa (purusha) - the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  The  Chinese concept of yinyang, although being similar, having two Essences complementary, has by common usage become bifurcated into the erroneous opposing Yin and Yang.


..............        DÔN - The Cosmic Goddess.

Alpha - A

The ancients surveyed their environment and saw everything from mountains, forests, oceans and living things to these strange lights in the sky (sun, moon and stars) that seemed to go on for ever.  Someone must have made them all. 

Now they knew that we all came from mothers for they saw the mystery of birth regularly in tribal life.  Everything, therefore, must have come from the Great or Universal Mother (Y Fam Gyffredinol).  So they visualised a suitable image of immense proportion and gave Her a name depending on their language.

Here we are dealing with the archetypal Cosmic Womb, Female Potency of the Cosmos or Illimitable Tumescent Receptor with the potential to bring forth all varying degrees of manifestation - an inert, latent, noumenal but all potential and probabilistic Essence which binds free-moving force into the organised symmetrical structures of the cosmos.  (Metaphysical Law of Symmetry)  Nevertheless, on account of this binding, constriction or discipline, She brings an end to dynamic, free-moving activity or force.

I include a glimpse into Egyptian mythology here as it is the bedrock in contemporary Khemetic reconstructionism and moreover as I elected to perform research on behalf of friends who were anxious to ally themselves with the Netjert (Goddess) Sekhmet.  In Egyptian Myth, Sekhmet is known by one epithet from c. a hundred - "Lady Of The Place Of The Beginning of Time" as in one of Her hymns:-

"The bornless One alone lay deep within
 The vanguard hid. 
 One udjat opened premature and brief
 Upon that hour and forth flew the power to flash
 With searing heat and vivid brilliance 
 Of a trillion trillion suns.

 There, where all were called to order and time was set 
 To measure a glorious aeon, the Chaser 
 Of incalculable shadows and the Caller into existence of
 Countless forms of beauteous life proclaimed aloud 
 Her power inexhaustible with one sustain’d and deafening roar."

(similar concept to Tiamat in the Enuma Elish, First Tablet.)

(The above from Kaer Dathyl website: - 
Psychic page - journey to the Upper Nile - Hymns to Sekhmet.)

This Essence is similar to the Hindu Mahakali.  maha in Sanskrit means 'very great' so Mahakali is not just the Great [Goddess] Kali but the Very Great or Supernal Kali.

Kali,of course, is the darker aspect of Mother Durga, 'durga' meaning 'inaccessible' in Sanskrit, i.e. the inaccessible Cosmic Mother Who lives in vast unseen realms of terrifying non-dimensionality.(2c.0)  Durga is pictured above as JaiMaa Thawewali Who is the Hindu equivalent of the Keltic Dôn Who is in all things and in Whom all exist.

C.G. Jung, however, when discussing this Archetype (an image in the Collective Unconscious), is concerned with imprints of the physical world or shows the influences of Christianity & Gnosticism, e.g.  "First in importance are the personal  mother and grandmother, stepmother and  mother-in-law; then any woman with whom a  relationship exists—for example, a nurse or  governess or perhaps a remote ancestress. Then  there are what might be termed mothers in a  figurative sense. To this category belongs the  goddess, and especially the Mother of God, the Virgin, and Sophia."  It is  rather strange that although mentioning the mother-in-law, he ignores 'virgin', 'wife', 'lover' and 'whore'! (Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype" (1939.1959) In CW 9, Part I: The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. 1959)

As Mahakali is mentioned above, the analogous imagery in Sanskrit encourages me to continue this Eastern road, as the Keltic outcome will be recognised as the identical destination with the Sanskrit.

Satkaryavada - the theory of First Causes in Samkhya philosophy can be seen in the sixth chapter of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (2c.1) which declares the supremacy of सत्  sat in Sanskrit.

In Sanskrit sat is pure essence,(2c.2) eternal existence, the Supreme, the cause (2d) as the origin of creation.  This concept of Sat being the Dark Essence or Mother is upheld still by Eastern (Oriental) peoples.

  ...sat = being (present participle) or 'beingness' in Sanskrit masc
"Sanskrit-English Dictionary.  Etymologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages by Sir Monier Monier-Williams"
     (p. 1134 col. 2)

     as the Feminine Principle is being examined here perhaps the feminine sati should be used.

also means 'truth' in Vedic Sanskrit.

           sat - vadana masc = a speaking of truth (ibid. p.1136 col. 2)
...............sat-amse.projects the concept of  'in eternity'.
               sat - amkara = mfn famous, fame (ibid p. 1134 col. 1)

................... satta - matram = the original substance, cause of everything.
                    sat - kartri = the creator of living beings. (ibid p. 1135 col.2)

.........................satt - amah = the supreme.
..............................sat - ah of the eternal & of all living beings in all planets.
...................................sat - arakah = with all the stars.
                                        sat - yam = truth (ibid p. 1135 col.3)
........................................satyasya =  of the Absolute Truth.

Combining these phrases we may compose yet another epithet of the Cosmic Mother:  

The true and Supreme Essence in eternal existence, 
the starry Origin of all things throughout eternity.

From one ceremony to the Cosmic Mother:- (Page H11 of Kaer Dathyl website - "Y Fam Ddu".)

"Lo within this dimmest gyre -
Discernment deep of purpose,
Gender, Motherhood, acuity

Of Universal uterine proclivity."

Indeed I am reluctant to draw similarities between the Hindu Deities and the Keltic but what intrigues me is not the naming of Deities in disparate areas of Earth but the similarities between concepts and the terminology/imagery involved.   So to continue:-

When sat stretches out on the great cosmic drawloom on which unfolds the web (Keltic 'Y Gwe') where is woven the structure of manifestation, this process is termed तन्  tan in Sanscrit.  What is implied here? 

To give satisfactory answer we must continue with the analysis of Sanscrit image-building.

    .     tan = 'stretch/expand' also 'those/them/all those';
tanuM = Body of a demi-god. 
..........tan = to extend or lengthen out (in Yoga practice) Gk.
τάνυμαι = ‘stretch'
tani = stretched (Hindi)
           tanula = spread, expanded 
"Sanskrit-English Dictionary.  Etymologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate
                                                                               Indo-European Languages by Sir Monier Monier-Williams" (p. 435 col. 3)

...................          tantram = weave (Sanskrit)
tantu = thread; tantusu = in threads.
                                tantraka = from the loom (ibid p. 436 col.2)
                                        tantrayin = drawing out threads (ibid. p. 436 col. 2)
                                        tantrin = wove, spun (ibid. p. 436 col. 2)

.....................        tana = fibre (ibid. p.442 col.2)
                                        tanva = spun, woven (ibid, p. 442 col. 2)
  ......................................tantu = offspring;
(Monier-Williams Search) .     .................................
tan = body (Hindi)
......................................  .All being extensions (tan of sat)

We now obtain the image projected by combining 'stretch out/expand' + 'loom' + 'threads' + 'offspring' + 'forms/body'.  When applied to the Sanskrit Cosmic Mother (Matripadma or Mother Lotus), the Avia of any culture and our own Keltic Cosmic Mother, we find the Great unseen unknown eternal Principle stretching Herself out in all possible directions of the Cosmos that is The manifest All within Herself, just as threads are stretched upon the drawloom.  And what She weaves are manifestations ('them', 'all those', 'forms' & 'bodies') all offspring of the Mother of Eternity - the modern quantum term Dark Matter.

There is a burning question in Quantum Physics at the moment - how can a Higgs singlet come into existence before it is created?   As The Absolute is that ONE state wherein ALL within Infinity and Eternity co-exist, then the Higgs singlet must have existed NOT before its creation (as we eschew creationism) but before its extrusion.

As I have recently mentioned the Hebrew acceptance of the femininity of the Spirit of the אלוהים - Elohim, it is important to remember that one phrase relating to this creatrix is ehyeh ašer ehyeh which is usually translated as "I am that I am", denoting the unchanging permanency of Divinity.  This is a very common mistake as ehyeh deserves its correct translation which is "I will be" resulting in "I will be what I will be".  This reinforces the concept of the Feminine Principle Who will become and Who will continually present ever new manifestations in Her extrusion (not creation) or 'stretching out'. Wikipedia discusses this correction in considerable depth.

[Another word which is used in Sanskrit is sandhini for 'the existence-expanding energy' but, although Hindu religion appears polytheistic and herein admits this expansion, this concept is explained by Srila Jiva Gosvami when he clarifies the text, as "potencies of the Lord", assuming only a masculinity of Brahma and denying His hermaphroditic potential - vide his thesis Bhagavat-sandarbha, Anucchedas 12-18.]

The Sanskrit tan also ensures that each and any structure (metaphysical 'fact'**) reaches the true potential of its species and encourages it to follow its true will and destiny so to do (aided perhaps by the ministrations of Math). Do we not talk of extending pupils in order that they reach their true or ultimate potenial in education? 

**(A 'fact' in metaphysics is any 'thing' that exists and is observable by a sense or senses, e.g. a universe, galaxy. star, planet, all creatures of even nano dimension thereupon - in animal, plant or mineral form, a sound, odour of flowers or living beings, a disease, pain, water's coolness to the touch, the taste of food, an hallucination, pain, emotion, concepts, dream etc..  Yes every thing or phenomenon!)  [Metaphysical Law of Finite Perception]

This Essence has at times been termed the Primordial Root or Cosmic Substance (3) Dark Matter in modern parlance.  Science now understands that c.300,000 after the so-called Big Bang, all that existed was a universe of complete darkness (Cosmological Dark Ages) before manifestation of the first stars, quasars and super black holes.  Indeed we could view this period of Dark ages as the Great Mother's period of gestation.   (The 'Big Bang' concept is now questionable.)

As the Builder of forms, She also ensures the end of such, as every form must expire at the end of its allotted span and return in spirit to its Mother when its physical use is outworn.  For this reason the Great Mother has been called also 'the sow who eats her own farrow'.
Looking again to the Egyptian Sekhmet (Who was derived from the dread lioness Queen of Queens in South Western Uganda - Nyabinghi, the Goddess black as night) in Her epithet 'Lady of the Bloodbath':-

"The Ruler of Serpents and Dragons even Nesert,  
the Royal Serpent, calleth the venomous cobras 
to bite deep their back and front.

The Warrior Netjert draweth Her bow to loose  
Her arrows one by one to deeply wound and  
slay with the savage sting of scorpions.

Sekhmet of the Knives rendeth their throats agape, 
as wide as yawning jaws of Sobek at the  
waters’ edge of Lower Khemet.  Then see we  
their countenances filled with terror.

Sekhmet, Wanderer in the Wastes, 
 Quaffeth the swift flowing tide that is
 Their crimson lifeblood.

 Her thirst is such that, with Her drinking done, 
 Their corpses lie as withered parchment dried by desert sun,
 To be consumed by hyena, snake and vulture." 

Ergo birth = death and death = birth.

Tan, discussed above,is also responsible for increase in entropy in a 'fact', until the energy to live is pushed out completely causing demise/expiry, irrespective of the methodology - e.g. a star going supernova or a vildebeest being torn apart by the hunting lioness.  (Yes, Nature is red in tooth and claw!)  In this way, Dôn is not only the giver of birth but also the giver of death.  I have used the word 'drawloom' deliberately as it requires two operators - this explanation will become apparent shortly.

This brings us full circle to "the sow that eats her own farrow".  Before a sow may ingest one of her young, she must first kill it.  Likewise, as Dôn is the instrument of birth so too, I suggest, is She the instrument of death.

The extrusion of Her Essence brings, as an essential complement by Her nature of Alma Mater, Her Essence of Life and growth (in scientific terms, a 'carrier wave' or clinically innocuous 'dispersal vector' with life-giving energy as passenger) to the designed form manifested.  This is maintained as a continuum throughout the life of each fact or phenomenon ensuring the vibrancy of life.

In the evening of each form's span in time, however, the extrusion of that Essence becomes devoid of the gift/Force of life but proceeds as a neutral medium or passenger-free carrier which continues to push ever onward.  The finality of this ongoing relentless thrust of Entropy pushes the Force of life out of the manifested form to bring eventual and inescapable death as, already stated, Entropy increases with age (the Second Law of Thermodynamics)

On the right is the spectral hag, Gwrach y Rhibyn, who appears in advance of a death in the family, howling horribly to warn the people of the impending demise. 

She is the Kymraec equivalent of the Irish banshee and is yet another manifestation of the destroying Dark Goddess, perceived by those with psychic ability i.e. what is termed "the sight" by Scottish Highlanders.

In the myth of the Keltic Kerridwen we see the continuation of the birth > death process - the converse death > birth of reincarnation which was quite logical to the Kelt as, in Her wild rage for Gwion's negligence in his task of stirring constantly the Pair yr Awen (cauldron of inspiration), She hunts the fleeing youth and, with an episode of constant shape-shifting by both, She as a hen devoured young Gwion who had transformed himself into a grain of wheat in his efforts to esccape. 

Then, as the myth continues, "And so did Gwyion grow as nine moons waxed, as nine moons waned and to Kerridwen the pangs of birth appeared.  Her moaning ever stronger grew and, as She lay in travail and in pain, the waters flowed.  And with the flowing came Her cry of agony as womb did firm descend, and with the cry - a child, Her son.  Gwyion who wert - Gwyion who art - Gwyion reborn". 

And so the young Gwion was reincarnated and, in the tale, would be transformed into the entity Taliesin.

Yes, our Great Cosmic Mother Who gives life is also the Destroyer, Annihilator and Killer Who takes life only to give it again and again, the process reduplicating on a continuum of cycles!  Should one revisit the very first paragraph on Dôn where the Linguistic History initiates the analysis of the Deities, they will find this illustration of the Dark Goddess.

When this picture is examined again, the Goddess is seen to hold not only the key to the womb and birth but the dagger in Her right hand with which to deliver the final death blow.  She is - ffynhonnell a diwedd (Source and Ending)   The artist was obviously enlightened! 

Now we realise that She is not only the Source but also the Ending - the Alpha and Omega, a concept usurped by Christianity.  Nor should one shrink from this concept remembering Freddie Mercury of Queen who sang, "Who wants to live forever?"  Most terminally-ill patients would agree whole-heartedly when the intense pains of cancer unleash their final onslaught.

Again when a new urban development is required for the modern living standards of a growing population, the slums of yesteryear with their unsanitary conditions must first be torn down.  This, however, is a necessary preparatory stage of development and is most decidedly not wanton destruction.  So it is with vegetation which must die on a annual basis that life return to the earth the following spring, and so it is with man that he be cut down in death at the end of his allotted span and be freed from the restrictions of an aged earthly frame that his spirit may continue on its ever upward path of personal development through reincarnation.  The Dark Goddess' hand is also hereupon.

Medieval philosophers attempted to name this Essence Azoth, an acronym formed by the first and last letters of the three languages favoured by academics of the time - Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

The mixture was A from Latin, alpha from Greek and aleph from Hebrew, the last letters being Z from Latin, omega from Greek and tav from Hebrew, their patriarchal deity being bound to respond, so they thought, to this overdone salutation - the magi of that period were taking no chances of being ignored!

Our individual spirits, then (but not souls which will be qualified near the end of this thesis), are not created by but are born of The One, lived in The One and She in us (sublime reciprocated love), returning to the Wells of Peace - The One at the consummation of an aeon. 

In tribute to Arlen Wilson, the late widow of Robert Anton Wilson wrote of these matters in her poem "Our Lady of Outer Space" from the book 'Chaos and Beyond' by Robert Anton Wilson (Robert Anton Wilson & Permanent Press 1994):-

"Reach down for the sun, reach down
for the stars, reach deeper for the secret
places of the body of her the stars adorn.

You are lost and found in her embrace.
There is nowhere else for you to fall and

no escaping from her love for she is
black and pulsing source,
her million twinkling nipples
nurse all life,
her jeweled ardent body
twines around you always
and there is no place
to go but

And I ask, "Where else can one find such perfect imagery of the Dark Mother or indeed the burning devotion in the heart of the writer?"

I'm afraid this must shatter the pictures prevalent in Roman Catholic Christianity of Mary Queen of Heaven - the sweet, harmless, ever-loving, yet doloriferous mother:-

"Stabat Mater dolorosa
iuxta Crucem lacrimosa,
dum pendebat Filius. 

Cuius animam gementem,
contristatam et dolentem
pertransivit gladius

Although mentioned in the myth many times as the mother of one or other of her children, She is never seen, reinforcing the concept of a latent invisible Essence which is the agent of cosmic parturition and death.

Remaining unseen, She is often termed the Dark, i.e. hidden Mother (Keltic Mam ddu or Mam cudd) - the secret concept behind the Black Madonna in Eastern Orthodox Christianity and the venerated Mexican Nuestra Señora de la Santa Muerte (Our Lady of the Holy Death), although the Church equates each with the Madonna in mourning.

When examining Polynesian belief systems, it is interesting to discover that the Maoris of New Zealand have the cosmogony of Te Kore (primal Chaos/unmanifest ) or Io-matua-koreIo the parentless one, TePo (Darkness) and Ao-maramai (manifested Light Principles).

This is similar to the Hindu Sanskrit philosophy and that of a number of Oriental peoples and indeed the Kelts, with reverence of the great Ariki (forefathers) even as we honour the mighty dead of Y Gwerin (The Warband).  Mauri is the life principle or vital spark which all people and things contain. Thereafter there is a polytheistic outlook in the world of humanity.(3a)

The Cosmic Goddess is considered to be in triple spect:-

  1. The fons et origo of all metaphysical facts - Initiator (extrusion of new forms)
  2. The Maintainer of all in manifestation - Nurturer (Alma Mater)
  3. The Remover/Destroyer of all outmoded facts - Recycler ("the sow who eats
      her own farrow") 

Perhaps I have spent more time than is usual in this analysis of one Deity but I maintain that this is essential when examining The Avia - Grand Mother, (Keltic Mam fawr) of all Creation.  I have included Sanskrit in previous paragraphs to satisfy a student Andrea B. who informed me on one occasion that "Sanskrit is the 'mother language' of Earth." (Well I wonder what the language was as spoken by the troglodytic people of Kelt-Iberia of 20,000 to 12,000 a.e.v., not to mention the ancient Picts of Alba!) 

I had the following message left on my website by this very Andrea on 5th July 2012:-

"What do you think of the near 'discovery' of the 'not quite' Higg's Boson-type 'particle'?  They say it's action is a binding together of particles, at the "Big Bang" event.  Otherwise, all the multi-billions of particles would have simply dispersed, individually.  Ipso facto, no galaxies, quarks or solar systems.

A Manifestrix - She who glues the Multiverses Together!?  Yea, Creatrix, wherefore art thou?  The only thing is, the Established 'religions' are going to jump on this as PROOF that they are right."
My response: "
I agree, Andrea - if anything it is a Goddess particle, not a God particle.

...............        MATH - Lord of Fate. (Arglwyd Tyghet)

As Lord of Fate, therefore, He is a necessary extension of the passive or ‘feminine’ part of The Essence - that invisible web of stresses upon which parturition or manifestation forever takes place.  Here, then, is the Agent of Destiny Who is still part of The One - The All.

I suggest that, as an extension of the above cosmic Essence, He is concerned with action and reaction, allowing this Essence and the Force discussed immediately below to coalesce in order that manifestation become reality.

Thereafter all actions, be they of a spiritual/etherial nature or of a grossly material genre, cause an appropriate reaction to occur which in turn determines the evolution of each unique element involved  within manifestation - Metaphysical Law of Cause & Effect.  

Again this is a noumenal principle - the necessary Medium or anthropomorphic Facilitator who brings Dôn and Beleu together on the web of stresses (just as two human partners become deeply attracted to each other with the correct 'chemistry' as part of the attraction) and was there before manifestation. He is in mundane human terminology - the Jewish Shadchan or marriage broker.

There may be a parallel of Math with the natural phenomenon of gravity which is emitted by Dark Matter and by which all physical bodies, irrespective of size, exert an influence one upon another to direct or redirect the other's path e.g. a) each star being retained in form and functional on account of gravity rather than explode asunder, b) the order kept in great galactic clusters and the miniscule atom or indeed

c) galactic collisions - an observable form of Fate, if you will.  I reiterate, Math appears to be the anthropomorphised Management Extension of  Dôn.

...............        BELEU MAWR - The Cosmic Father God.  (Thad i Bawb)

Later, when our ancestors realised that man impregnated woman and the secret of fatherhood was common knowledge, they felt that there must be an All Father Who sired everything.  So again they made an image of this concept and name Him accordingly.

Here we have the forth-flowing and essentially dynamic cosmic Force, Vital Power or Cosmic Consciousness/Ideation with the potential to motivate its enveloping counterpart to bring forth form.  This I refer to as active, masculine or positive Spirit.

I argue that He is the Great Stimulator of cosmos and evolution, the All-pervading Donor, Male Potency and Archetypal Cosmic Impregnator - one with Dôn, the ineffable Cosmic Pair at the Cosmic drawloom.  This force has been described in The Mysteries as Universal Mind.(4) Now we have a concept of Beleu and  Dôn, the divine concubinage similar to the Sanscrit  siva-durga - Lord Siva and his wife, Durga.(4a) Nevertheless He was within the Essence of Dôn prior to manifestation, aware yet awaiting Her call to activity.  From our Rite of Parenthood we read:-

“Desirous Awakener and 
 Space-Arch of Eternity
 Whose formless Spirit clings
 To farthest fields of nothingness
 In all-embracing gyre,
 Thou art One in constant union
 With the conscious Being of Thy Lord,
 Yet forever to all eyes unseen."

Here Dôn is the female potency arousing the male impregnator - the Desirous Awakener of Beleu, their union becoming the Parenthood of all of Dôn's coming-to-be.  I feel that Beleu's identity must remain independent of Dôn even as the Upanishads aver that the purusha (male) was individual and not created by the prakriti (female).  From the Protocol of Beleu (4a.0) :-

"Where weft and warp unite to mark
 Each locus on th'eternal Web
 That manifests The Mother’s dream
 Of all Her Royal finger deigneth shape,
 Dwell I - the conscious sparkle
 Of every yocto-mind and galaxy
 With diverse denizens thereof
 And I, e'en I am everywhere in circles
 By immortal finger yet unmarked
 The centre and the Life."

And while endorsing the essential of paired or balanced parenthood (Metaphysical Laws of Convergency and Reciprocal Action) Beleu continues:-

"Where and when The Mother Great
 Wills to extend her flowing cloak

 Yet without Mine ubiquitous Spirit bright,
 Forever shrouded and unknown
 My Lady would remain.

 And in that soundless voice
 Wrought by mentation's proclivity,
 Each child of She (both miniscule or vast)
 Doth swift opine throughout Eternity
 An instant dialogue.

 Lo that which soars as ideation’s dart
 Floats cushioned on Mine Epinikion". (triumph song)

Here I must recapitulate the explanation of the "instant dialogue which soars on ideation's dart".  John Stewart Bell's Theorem in quantum mechanics, although highly technical, simply amounts to this:-  There are no systems existing in total isolation.  Every particle in the cosmos is in immediate (i.e. faster than light) communication with all other particles.  The entire array, including the parts separated by vast cosmic distances, functions as a whole system.
Faster-than-light communication, however, seems prohibited by Special Relativity which would appear to negate the theory.  Nevertheless Bell's Theorem is undeniable, as a theorem in physics is a mathematical exposition which must be true if the mathematics contain no error and if the experiments on which it is based can be replicated.  Bell's Theorem certainly contains no flaw and the experiments have been repeated satisfactorily several times, proving that communication i.e. consciousness not energy can exceed light speed.

In searching for the Cosmic role of the ubiquitous Beleu Mawr, the Consort of Dôn, He Whom we identify with infinite consciousness, we must visit the Lunar Deity Who appears to have full reign over both conscious and unconscious levels and indeed the physiology of womankind.  Can we find help somewhere to prevent a clash of functionality and the eruption of some degree of enmity between Father and Daughter?

As I have argued on many pages, The Lunar or Moon Goddess, Who rules the airy corridors of the mind, the physiology of womankind and terrestrial oceanic tidal mechanics, has functionality in the cerebral vault in triads:-

a. Conscious Mind 

1. Engagement of consciousness (awakening)
2. Maintenance of consciousness (the norm of diurnality)
3. Remover of consciousness (onset of sleep)

b. Unconscious Mind 

1. Initiator of all aspects of physiology (e.g. pubescence in living ....organisms).
2. Maintenance of physiology (e.g. motivation of involuntary muscles such
....as in the heart, circulation, endocrine & mononuclear phagocyte
... systems, lymphatics et al.).
3. Remover of outmoded physiology (e.g. menopausal changes –
....female and male).  The sterility in this aspect is that of living creatures,
... not sterility of The Lunar Goddess.

c. Woman's Physiology

1. Ovulation
2. Fertility potential
3. Menstruation

As we have examined the levels of Conscious Mind as governed by the Lunar Goddess and called upon the physics of Bell's theorem as an ally, again it seems I must revert to Sanskrit as a comparator, the scriptures of which may hopefully shed some light on how the Cosmic Lord can impact fully the planes of Consciousness.

I seem to be drawn to these texts like a moth to a flame on account of their antiquity as on many occasions they lead down various byways which have never existed in Keltdom or, although having existed in the mind of the cyfarwydd or storyteller, have become fossilised  or absorbed by some subtle myth that escapes our cognizance.  So now permit me to link arms with a long-dead darsanika and attempt to retrieve the still succulent bones of his scriptures and darshana.

Consciousness in Sanskrit Scriptures

Adi Shankara defined three states of consciousness based upon ideas promulgated in the Mandukya Upanishad.

1. waking (jagrata)
2. dreaming (svapna)
3. deep sleep (susupti)

Here there is an immediate departure of parallels with the Kymraec, as the Sanskrit is in effect being concerned with the dichotomy of waking and sleeping.  Nevertheless let us hold fast to the Sanskrit vehicle and await our destination.

1. Waking consciousness is when we are aware of our material world.  It is termed as “outward-knowing (bahish-prajnya).”  In waking consciousness there is awareness of self-identity and awareness of personally controlled thoughts.

2. The dreaming mind is described as “inward-knowing (antah-prajnya).”  In the sleep/dream state there is no awareness of the ' I ' but there is an awareness of thoughts. Waking and dreaming are considered not true involvements in reality and truth, probably because life is deemed to be Maya – illusion.

3. In deep sleep the fundamental base of consciousness is undisturbed.   It is the domain of "The Lord of all (sarv’-eshvara), the knower of all (sarva-jnya), the inner controller (antar-yami), the source of all (yonih sarvasya).”

In dreamless sleep, one is not conscious of external or internal objects, and there is no awareness of thoughts or the ' I '. This does not mean that consciousness is not extant. It is similar to saying “I see nothing.”  The appreciation is that nothing is what is seen.  In dreamless sleep, therefore, one is not conscious of anything or, one might say, is conscious of nothing.  The very fact that this negative assertion is true, evidently proved to Adi Shankara the existence of conscious mind during deep sleep.


The Mandukya Upanishad is the shortest of the Upanishads.  It is in prose, comprising twelve verses developing the mystic syllable aum, the three psychological states of waking, dreaming and sleeping and the transcendent fourth state of illumination.  

Verse VII of the Mandukya Upanishad describes Turiya thus:

Turiya is not that which is conscious of the inner world, nor that which is conscious of the outer world, nor that which is conscious of both, nor that which is a mass of consciousness.  It is not simple consciousness nor is It unconsciousness.  It is unperceived, unrelated, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable and indescribable. The essence of the Consciousness manifests as the self in the three states, a) It is the cessation of all phenomena; b) It is all peace, all bliss and c) non—dual. This is what is known as the Fourth (Turiya). This is Atman and this has to be realized.”  And so it is the essence that is the fourth and which manifests through the three.

Turiya, then, is not a state.  It is that fourth constituent which links the aforementioned three together or rather which subtends these three.  It is the circumstance on which dreaming and wakefulness arise and disappear. It is another term to describe pure sentience, which is also called nirvikalpa, without framing it in hypotheses. The insight during meditating on Turiya is known as amātra, that which is beyond measure in the Mandukya Upanishad - identical to samādhi in Yoga vocabulary.

Gaudiya Vaishnavism

"Gaudiya Vaishnavism, "Chaitanya Vaishnavism" or "Hare Krishna" is a spiritual movement founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.  "Gaudiya" refers to the Gauḍa region ( Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, often addressed as Krishna or Vishnu.

The Gaudiya Vedantins are interested in turyatitah gopala.  This is the fifth dimension in which one comes face to face with Gopala Krishna in Braj (Vraja Dhama), from adhoksaja to aprakrta, i.e. from God consciousness to Krishna consciousness. Turyatitah (also spelled turyatita, turya-titah, turiyatita, or turiya-titah) is the experience of this ultimate reality.

Having said this is the fifth dimension, why declare that a fourth dimension, turiya, is the base of our conscious actuality of  'I am I' and the aim of all who follow transcendental philosophy?  For the Vedanta theorists it is recognised either as absolute consciousness or a bonding with the divine."  (Schrödinger had a lifelong interest in the Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, which influenced his suppositions at the close of 'What is Life?' about the possibility that individual consciousness is only a manifestation of a unitary consciousness permeating the cosmos.)  Schrödinger, Erwin - 'My View of the World' chap. 4 and 'What is Life'.

Let us read from the Six Sandarbhas to understand this contradiction .

Six Sandarbhas

Scriptures by
Jiva Goswami -
   Mangalacarana 1
       Anuccheda 20

Text 3

sanyathaiva viraö
hiranyagarbhash ca

karanam cety upadhayah
ishasya yat tribhir hinam
m tat padam viduh

- that; anyatha - in, another way; eva - indeed; viraö – Kshirodakashayi, Vishnu; hiranyagarbhah – Garbhodakashayi, Vishnu; ca - and; karanamKaranodakashayi, Vishnu; ca - and; iti - thus; upadhayah - designations; ishasya - of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yat - what; tribhir - by three; hinam - without; turiyam - transcendence; tat - that; padam - state; viduh - know.

The word turiya can be interpreted in a different way, as Shrila Shridhara Svami explains in these words (Shri Bhavartha-dipika, commentary on Shrimad-Bhagavatam 11.15.16):-

"The Lord has three forms:

1. Kshirodakashayi Vishnu,
2. Garbhodakashayi Vishnu,
3. Karanodakakashayi Vishnu.

    His fourth form is Lord Vasudeva.

That is why Lord Vasudeva is called turiya (the fourth)."

Text 4

ity ady-ukte vasudevasya catur-vyuhe turya-kakshakrantatvad va shri-bhagavan.

- thus; adi -beginning; ukte - said; vasudevasya - of Lord Vasudeva; catur–vyuhe - in the four expansions; turya-kakshakrantatvat - because of being situated in transcendence; va - or; shri-bhagavan - the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

“Or, the word turiya may mean: Among the four Catur-vyuha forms of the Lord, Lord Vasudeva is the fourth. That is why He is called turiya (the fourth)."     

Mangalacarana 2
    Anuccheda 105

Text 138

devasya savitur devo
varenyam hi turiyakam 

- of the Lord; savitur - residing in the sun; devah - the Lord; varenyam - the best; hi - indeed; turiyakam - the spiritual world.

 "Thus the words savitur devasya varenyam turiyakam refer to the spiritual world of the Supreme Lord."

And in our Keltic spiritual framework, this Supreme Lord is Beleu Mawr and, as I stated above, He is the agent that subtends i.e. fathers the Lunar Goddess Who has rule over the airy corridors of the mind (conscious & unconscious as in the Sanskrit) and Whose function is imbued with Beleu's management flair for the a) fullness of mentation, b) instant communication and c) the heights of creativity. 

Like Dôn, the noumenal Beleu is never seen in the myth but remains an Essential of the balanced parenthood described above and in the above accented triad.

We can make an analogy here of a vehicle with Cosmic Factors - both awaiting to commence activity.  The vehicle may have a fuel tank with an adequate supply of petroleum spirit (Dark Essence which will remain inert until ignition occurs.)

When the key is turned, the starter motor "turns the engine over," turning the crankshaft which starts the pistons moving in the cylinders. This starts the cycle (Desire).

Air and fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinders where it is compressed and the spark plugs fire.  This compression, in cosmic terms, may be considered as tumescence in the Dark Essence. And so begins combustion. The spark plugs too are inert until electricity is encouraged to arc across a gap, like unto a lightning bolt. 

This is why I show in illustration the God activity as a bolt of lightening.  Yet this manifestation of an electric arc is but a dream until the invisible Male Force or Conscious Power, which too is inert within the battery, is encouraged by the law of  mechanics (Math the Law Giver) to create the spark and ignition thus awakening the mixture of fuel and air (Dark Essence and Memory) to activity or tan.

As below so above.


GWYNN - Lord of Fecundity and of the Dead.
(Arglwyd corniog or Arglwyd dau Llidiardau,
i.e. Horned Lord or Lord of the Two Gates.

The noumenal Principle of The Lord of Birth and of the Dead is still part of The One.  Birth and death are indeed complementary as birth to manifest existence is death to the unmanifest existence and vicé vêrsa.

It can be understood as a Principal having two functions while remaining One within The One. Although appearing to escalate complexity, if we make a human physiological analogy, the function of this Deity becomes clear.  In the human organism we find complex endocrine activity as follows:-

In the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland the following hormones are present 

1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

a) In the male it acts upon the testes to encourage the formation of

b) In the female it causes ripening of the ovarian follicle.

2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

a) In the female it acts on the ovarian follicle thus producing ovulation.
b) In the male it acts on the Leydig cells of the testes encouraging
....Testosterone secretion.

3. [The growth hormone which acts upon general body tissues to cause
.....development and continuation of form I feel can be safely left to the
.....domain of Dôn's Alma Mater nature.]

In the posterior lobe of the pituitary the following hormone is present - Oxytocin which causes uterine contractions resulting in birth.

No doubt one could find a place for the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which acts upon the adrenal cortex encouraging the secretion of male and female-type hormones.  In the female the male hormone not only stimulates the growth of axillary and pubic hair but is responsible also for sex drive which is essential for triggering procreative urges - the awakener of passions in her human partner.

The birth aspect of this Lord of Fecundity could be looked on as the equivalent of pituitary secretions of the Female Principle of The One. 

His second function in human post-moribundity - Lord of the Dead is also that part of The One or All which opens the portal to the afterlife and thus aids the absorption of a structure back within the All - the real reason, as I have said before, why the Great Mother Goddess is often called theriomorphically as "the sow who ingests her children".  Perhaps one could make a very loose analogy here to the withdrawal of ACTH from the adrenal cortex which causes secondary failure of the cortex resulting, if untreated, in death. (4a.1)

To each fact/form/structure, having fulfilled its own growth potential and destiny, Gwynn's vigilance over increased entropy, in order that there is a gearing down of life force in the twilight of each form's life, is the trigger to activate his duty. When the life force is completely exhausted, the ending of that form's existence is the prelude to it being returned to the Mother Who extruded it in the first instance.  Gwynn may be seen as that part of The Great Mother's Divine physiology that primes Her Parturition or Mater predisposition as well as Her rôle as Washer of the Ford (4a.2)  (the Preparer for the journey to the domain of the newly departed) - vide the poem of that name by Fiona McLeod (aka William Sharp).

These comments on the many pituitary functions in the human organism are simply analogies which could go some way to explaining these functions in the cosmic chemistry/physiology of the Dark Essence.  By making such comparisons using the Metaphysical Law of Analogy, we can better understand things we do not know by examining things we do know.  (Metaphysical Law of Parallelism)  Or one might just regurgitate the old adage - "As above, so below" or this in reverse.

We have assumed that, as firstborn of the First Parents and not a manifestation into denser realms of Spirit per se, Gwynn is a noumenal principle - the anthropomorphism of that part of cosmic chemistry which permeates the whole of Nature's panoply, the machinery for fecundity on all levels and additionally the pathway following Death - a recycling system.

We do not assume, however, that all such recycled structures must be of dense matter, indeed they may be outmoded concepts in philosophy, religion, sociology, economics, politics or any other abstraction. Although possessing, prima facie, two disparate functions which, when considered in depth are really complementary, He remains, nevertheless, One Principle within The One, His Mother's faithful Executor in the broadest sense.

So here we have a tetrality or quadfurcation in Cosmic First Principals which would have remained so, if an ontological process (tan) had resulted in separation/individuation which of course it did not.  Nevertheless this is negated by the consideration that Math is the management extension of Dôn, responsible for the action/reaction of one fact to another  - Tyghet or fate which assists the developmental tan (becoming) process.

Gwynn is a necessary porthawr or door keeper of the Gates of Birth and Death which aids Dôn not only in Her pushing forth to bring further facts into manifestation but also in her evacuation of life-force and Her acceptance of outworn facts to Her Being.  In the Rite of Parenthood we find Gwynn described thus:-

 "The tides of beginning, the chill dark river of ending,
 Two sacred streams o’er which Thou shalt watchful remain;
 Lo be they seen on Thy brow to their Source ever wending,
 Arglwyd dau Llidiardau* be Thy Name.”
*(Lord of the Two Gates)

In the last line of this descriptor he receives the identity of Lord of dau Llidiardau (two Gates) and the functions of the Gates are seen as His two functions emitted from His brow (i.e. His bifurcated awareness) awarding Him the additional epithet of The Two Horned Lord (Arglwyd corniog).  By these two functions, He is, as previously stated, Dôn's Executor Whose assigned duty is assisting in the maintenance of the Cosmic array in pristine condition, devoid of stagnation, corruption and congestion. 

Not only is Gwynn the preparer of the way for each spirit to enter an embryonic form, in dispensing these duties He, similar to the Greek Xeirwn (Cheiron), Hecate in both Greek & Roman myths and Die Walküre of German mythology, is charged with escorting the spirits and souls of the departed to the afterlife.  In the mythos of the Kymru, the place of the immediately departed is Kaer Ochren - Gwynn's personal kaer or keep.  No doubt another function could be the loosing of the bond between soul and spirit in order that the soul (unit of one incarnation) proceed to the second death while the spirit (unit of an aeon) is freed to wing to Kaer Pedryfan for rest and further incarnation.



Now that we have examined the Noumena or Spiritual Entities which constitute The One - The Source, perhaps we should devote a few further paragraphs to consolidate and encapsulate this concept.  Let us examine, therefore, Aristotle's concept of the One Thing:- "For those who say that the universe is one something (i.e. those who generate all things out of one thing) are bound to assert that coming-to-be is 'alteration'.  At all events, that coming-to-be and passing-away are the same as 'being altered'.   For they must affirm that the underlying something always remains identical and one; and change of such a substratum is what we call 'altering'(4b)."

To the ancient pagan mind, however, Math and Gwynn were two anthropomorphisms although being, as we have discovered and even as the Greek philosophers discovered, essential parts of The One

To clarify the last sentence, we must resort to the Law of Analogy.  If we liken Dôn to a computer hard disc that is ONE thing which can be partitioned into as many parts as one requires e.g. 1) an operative system drive, 2) a file storage drive, 3) a drive containing a number of websites and perhaps 4) a back-up drive, so we have Dôn, the ONE with Her Math and Gwynn partitions or proclivities.  vide diagram on right.

But was the isolated singularity of Dôn really altered?  Does the fact that a woman has given birth on one or indeed many occasions cause her to be altered or, as Aristotle affirms, 'changed'?  Dôn, as any female being has, in periods of brooding, harboured the yearning to give of herself in the birth of a child and had treasured within Herself dreams of what Her children could become. (Children? galactic clusters, stars, planets, life-forms thereupon down to the atoms of all.)

She does not become altered or changed through Her parturition but comes-to-be, even as Her nurslings come-to-be, enriched through development.  Indeed it is often said of a woman who has attained motherhood that she is now fulfilled, the zenith of development.  Possibly, similar to the human female, She experiences joy as She gives of herself but feels sadness at the passing-away of each child.  Yet this negative feeling could be invalidated a) as each passing-away brings that part of Herself (The One) back within Her Being with the joy that comes of knowing Her offspring had developed and attained the achievement of their possibilities and b) becoming the destroyer with all necessary calm detachment.  Was this why the Keltic warriors treated death as a positive experience without fear?

There is, however, a certain duality - passive & active, female & male, Goddess & God just as in Hinduism we have the prakriti &  purusha or the Chinese yingyang, bearing in mind that Math and Gwynn are but proclivities of Dôn. Nevertheless the First Principal is simply One Unit, as Dôn & Beleu constitute One Unit of Parenthood - each without the other resulting in no manifestation whatsoever.

Indeed this concept of a Parenthood of both parents, the first Parents of The House or Warband, is found in the Northern Tradition of Odinism and in the pagan outlook of many other cultures worldwide to that of India (the prakriti & purusha) and as far south as Australia where ethnic Australians have the concept of these First Parents portrayed in Tjukurrtjanu of the Dreamtime. (4c)

Here are today's burning questions which besprinkle the internet:- "What is Dark Matter?"  "What is Dark Energy?"   "What is the difference between Dark Matter and Dark Energy?"  "Are they really the same?"   "Do they exist at all?" 

I quote from the internet BBC page on Dark Matter:-  "Dark matter is a kind of matter hypothesized in astronomy and cosmology to account for gravitational effects that appear to be the result of invisible mass.  Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits or absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level.  It is otherwise hypothesized to simply be matter that is not reactant to light.  Dark energy plus dark metter constitute 95.1% of the total content of the universe."

Dark Matter Distribution in Supercluster Abell 901/902

This is from the internet NASA Science - Astrophysics page:- "So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating.  No one expected this and no one knew how to explain it.  But something was causing it.   Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is but they have given it a name.  It is called dark energy. 

The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence. Then one version of Einstein's gravity theory, the version that contains the cosmological constant, makes a second prediction: 'empty space' can possess its own energy."
Was Einstein foreseeing the concept of Exotic Matter (XM).  It is both matter and energy existing in multiple dimensions? 
vide:  http://www.nianticproject.com/?id=00wod15 and
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/exotic_matter.html and

Dark energy was the term coined by Michael Turner and below is a simplified graph of the "What"?

1. The previously observable universe before Hubble? 

2. The present boundaries of our universe as seen in the above  illustration of the
    Hubble Ultra Deep Field? 

3.  A totally erroneous picture of the entirety of Cosmic infinity which really
     should place 'Atoms' (observable matter) at nano, zepto or yocto level (if even

Let us look at the diagram below but first of all we should disregard the 0.4% missing from the 'Atom' section.  The artist could not count!

(chart from Chandra X-ray Observatory website)


If we are to be guided by the word hypothesized above which really means the following:-

("Energy - matter - schmatter?  Who cares?  We are making these terms up.  We are inventing something we've never seen. Is the rebitsin in the shandhoiz?  Who knows?   Have you seen it - I haven't?  Maybe it's not there - yet maybe it is!  These terms could be utter garbage.  We just don't know ......... oy vey, we could be schmucks but we gotta be seen to be erudite physicists"),

is there an honest answer to be found anywhere?  Oh! Yes indeed.

David B. Cline in a 2003 article in Scientific American wrote: "The terms 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' serve mainly as expressions of our ignorance."  Bless and thank you, David.  And now we may thank Dr. Alexader Kashlinski for adding yet another such spurious term - 'dark flow'.

May we help here?

Nevertheless, as I stated in a contemporary paper, when discussing the synthesised hormonal effects on haemorrhagic symptomatology, it is not an instance of inventing something new but of remembering something old. 

Let us return, then, to the old Sanskrit premise of sat, the ONE Dark Essence/Cosmic Goddess/etherial invisible Dark Matter that has always existed but is only observed after She, the ONE has extruded phenomena and Who always pushes out - tan in every direction, as it is Her proclivity to inflate, expand, increase, extrude, push out and lengthen - hence the expanding Universe.  Einstein corroborated this when he said that it is possible for more space to come into existence.

And in relation to Einstein's prediction that 'empty space' can possess its own energy - what physicists now call Dark Energy, the following observation is valid:- this endorses not only the Math (gravity) proclivity of the Dark Goddess, as already described, but also ratifies what we already know - that it is space/Dark Matter (Dark Goddess) that expands of Her own volition - Her 'tan' property

One could then, if it were perplexingly necessary, call this division of Her unique persona Dark Energy

Here is another simple allegory.  Can we watch our local rabbi on holiday in Jerusalem and try to see him standing by the 'Wailing' Wall of the temple at the dead of night?  It is dark and he, being inert and dressed in black, cannot be seen - the dark rabbi is alone - the ONE.  Now we see a vague, imperceptible shadowy movement as he bows up and down while intoning some verses in Hebrew. If we were in the company of a scientist, he would now think and hypothesize "There must be an invisible energy that causes this subtle movement to occur in the deep shadows - let me think of a nameAh yes - 'wall energy'"  Oh! No, no, no, no, no - it is the inate religiosity and piety coming from within the rabbi that causes this imperceptible motion to manifest.  The Dark Rabbi calmly remains on his own, still the ONE.

I have been asked often how do I attempt to conceptualize the dimensions of the Dark i.e. Cosmic Goddess or Essence.  My answer is, "Think of the dimensionality being the enclosed volume of a sphere but a sphere of which the depth-point is everywhere and the circumference is nowhere (denoting the indispensible infinitude)", viz:-

V  = 4  p r! 3

where V is the enclosed volume, r is Y(Gpc/h)*
and ! is a factorialAs modern physics clings to a unique supersymmetric theory in 11 dimensions (11D), I suppose one could add ‘to the power 11 to the equation thus appeasing the theoretical physicists! The answer is still a fraction of   -  infinity.  Every mathematician knows, however, that "we cannot do mathematics with infinity"  so perhaps my above equation may appear totally erroneous, although it merely approaches infinity without qualifying or quantifying it.    [St. Clair, Pierre (2014-06-02). "Cosmology On Trial: Cracking The Cosmic Code" (p. 108). (Torchlight Science, San Diego) Kindle Edition.]

[*1xGpc/h (Gigaparsec/Hubble constant) = 1000xMpc/h (Megaparsecs/h) = 4.5 billion light years. Y is yotta (septillion - short scale).  The approximate radius of the observable universe is just c. 14 gigaparsecs.]

Does the illustration below invite your right cerebral hemisphere to visualise an analogous down-to-earth picture  - a vast cosmic womb containing every  star-scape and more, rather similar to an earthly womb and its fibroids!?

Let us bring the dimensionality, however, down to an understandable level - think of the entire observable Universe, seen by Hubble out to the Ultra Deep Field North, as being our minuscule back garden and the vista viewed out to the Ultra Deep Field South as our minute.front.garden.  Again this is but the tiniest fraction of infinity notwithstanding.
Permit me to reiterate. I rather like to visualise the Great Cosmic Goddess as a sphere the size of which is infinite.  It is formed of and is filled with Dark Matter but within this Dark Matter hang billions of galactic clusters, galactic cities and, if you so desire, many manifest universes - all crystalized from the Dark Matter and remaining within the sphere.  These galaxies/universes tend to journey ever outwards in all directions, yet the dark sphere constantly grows in size to accomodate their outward flight. 

Nevertheless perhaps it is not the galaxies that are pushing outwards toward a 'big rip', as it is called, but the natural extension & expansion of the Dark Matter that is pulling the galaxies with it (Her).  But can infinity be exceeded?  As we know it, no but as we enigmatically feel it, yes - the Cosmic Mother functions beyond time, beyond space and beyond all we can imagine or understand.  Nothing exists except this sphere - She - The All in One.


The above four deities are all of the realm of Pure Spirit (noumena) but, once manifestation has occurred, we must bring a further subdivision of protyles into the argument.  Most mystery systems and some religions have the concept of the four elements which Pure Spirit subtends.(5)  These elements of Air, Fire, Water and Earth are often called 'The Elements of The Wise' to distinguish them from the physical phenomena of their namesakes and are to be considered as inner-plane elements or protyles (i.e. sub-atomic realms). (6)

In their own right they are standard frequencies of consciousness which, if materialised to grosser levels, would manifest in an airy, fiery, watery or earthy manner.

We shall return to the subject of these Elements later to analyse the properties of each.  For the moment, however, we shall use these subdivisions of Pure Spirit as, when any level of manifestation is effected, Spirit must descend into grosser strata of Its own being and manifestation.

Granted these strata may be infinite in number but the four Elemental Kingdoms continue to suffice, as they have done for millennia, as broad groupings.  Here we have degree levels, on which of each we find facts of a similar nature. (6a) The Metaphysical Law of Degrees.

The philosophy of Hindu Tantrik Yoga also adheres to a similar concept of Spirit and four Tattvas subtended in the following manner:-


Carl Gustav Jung upholds the idea of the quaternary with equal vigour when he states: "The quaternary is an archetype of almost universal occurrence.  It forms the logical basis for any whole judgement.  If one wishes to pass judgement, it must have this fourfold aspect.  There are always four elements, four prime colours, four castes, four ways of spiritual development and four aspects of psychological orientation.  This ideal completeness is a circle or sphere, but its natural minimal division is the quaternary."

In point of fact, the minimal division of a circle or sphere is the bifurcation caused by the insertion of the diameter.  Only when one draws a second diameter creating four right angles at the centre is a quaternary division achieved.   

Without doubt many other exercises with straight line and circle, e.g. entering 13 secants of equal length to obtain a treiskaidecagon, thus demonstrating that there are a plethora of figures to reveal that the quaternary is but one very simple relative in the geometric family. 

To allow Jung to have his say, however, and refrain from further argumentative interludes, I have subdivided the Realm of Spirit in the manner below to satisfy his high regard for the nature of quadfurcation.

The remainder of The Deities, which obviously have their corresponding symbols in physical media such as sea and sun, fall within the following divisions of Pure Spirit or degree levels:-

Air     of

Water of
Earth  of


  Penarddun (MoonGoddess)
  Gwydyon (Sun God)
  Llyr (Sea God)
  Aranrot (Earth Goddess)

Let us examine, then, these externalised ‘Light Principles’ which have manifested in a created cosmos.

Madame Blavatsky has spoken of such Deities or powers as the Gods of the Elements.(9)   Being the first creations to manifest on strata lower than Pure Spirit, they should be considered as protyles and not noumena.  In the decriptor above I have used the traditional elemental colours for each stratum and shall continue to treat the protylean Deities in  like manner.

..............          PENARDDUN - Moon Goddess. (Brenhines y Nos)

Night is the period of minimum earthly consciousness and the nearest equivalent to the spirit's liberation by death while we are yet in life as the inner-planes may be visited briefly during sleep.

Penarddun, therefore, rules the inner-planes of the Abstract Mental Realm via the zodiacal air triplicity thus promoting the tendency to diffused thought and the rule of all mental processes including psychism and trance states.

In the strata within the human mind there are further subdivisions of the Major Air element, viz. inspiration (Spirit of Air), intellect and memory (Air of Air), will and character (Fire of Air), psychism and sensitivity (Water of)Air) & Finiteness (Earth of Air).

She is mated with the Sea God and consequently rules over the waters of earth and the tides of womanhood. Nevertheless, as night is the airiest part of the entire day, she may be given the realm of Air of Spirit.  Like all Moon Goddesses she is considered to have three aspects - maiden/initiator (new and waxing), mother/ maintainer (full) and remover (old).   This is demonstrated from a poetic epithet in a ceremony to Penarddun:-

"For thee I raise a shining gorsedd high,
Where worthy souls shall find all secrets lie.
My youth upholds each birth, with comfort lending,  (new)
Mine agèd counsel tendeth all thine endings. 

Honour me oft, thron'd in Kaer Colur's height, 

Merch Dôn a Beleu Mawr, The Queen of Night.

Although the moon is observed to be new, waxing, full, waning or dark, many tend to forget that the lunar form is somewhat symbolic of the powers of the Brenhines y Nos (Queen of the Night) and that power is constant.  Similarly the Cosmic Goddess, her ability to initiate, maintain and remove are simply three aspects of Her ethereal essence.  The lunar crescent may diminish to its nadir but the Lunar Deity does neither grow old and debilitated nor feeble of mind.  Her 'crone' aspect is the descriptor stupidly hung around the neck of the Goddess and the necks of post-menopausal women who are preoccupied with linear time, which Noumena and Protyles are not.  

No doubt such human 'crones' would strongly resist being compulsorily sequestered in a care-home or hospice simply because of their agèd appearance and sterility and not on account of being presbyophrenic, debilitated, non-ambulant, confused, deaf, half-blind & doubly incontinent!   I firmly believe these ladies would become justifiably indignant and enraged at this nature of insulting treatment.

I fervently eschew and utterly.condemn the common and erroneous term 'crone' in relation to Goddesses in page B07 of the Kaer Dathyl Website.

Here are the triple aspects as experienced by all living forms:-

a. Conscious Mind -

  1. Engagement of consciousness (awakening)
  2. Maintenance of consciousness (the norm of diurnality)
  3. Remover of conciousness (onset of sleep)

b. Unconscious Mind -

  1. Initiator of all aspects of physiology (e.g. pubescence in living organisms) 

  2. Maintenance of physiology, e.g. motivation of involuntary muscles (such as in
the heart), circulation, endocrine & mononuclear phagocyte systems,
et al..
  3. Remover of outmoded physiology (e.g. menopausal changes - female AND
male).  The sterility in this aspect is that of living creatures, not sterility of The
Lunar Goddess.

c. Woman's.Monthly.Physiology -

  1. Ovulation
  2. Fertility potential
  3. Menstruation 

...............       GWYDYON - Sun God.
................     .(Brenhin Cadeu - King of Battles)

He is ruler of day and wakefulness, the nearest equivalent to cosmic consciousness in life and the giver of illumination in all meanings of the word. 

As mentioned earlier, Gwydyon can be seen to have an alter ego/Aura, Light, so in addition to being governor of expansiveness and will which is the 'fire of the mind', He is also mate of the Earth Goddess and the Light is the power behind life, growth, health, healing and regeneration via not only that Light but solar radiation.

Even as the sun warms the sea, he can be seen to encourage the instincts as the bedrock of emotions to prime the functionality of these emotions.  He is primarily concerned with the ebullience of such in - spiritual fervour (Spirit of Fire), enthusiasm (Air of Fire), anger and aggression (Fire of Fire), love and compassion (Water of Fire) and contentment (Earth of Fire).

His sphere of governance in the human is the portion of the Abstract Mental Realm which is directed by the zodiacal fire triplicity promoting the tendency to diffused thought.

In myth He is also Y Brenhin Cadeu the King of Battles or Keimyat Cadeu the Champion of Battles (remembering his duel with Prydery) and as such must house the fire of aggression.

His realm, therefore, must be Fire of Spirit - the sun being the root of fire in our planetary system.  In Gwydyon is found the very heart of the Kymraec Warbands.

In this respect Gwydyon is implementer of retribution from its minor forms through the more stringent and severe to the ultimate sanction, although what could result in fatality on one occasion could have the sequella of recovery on another, remembering that the Cosmic Goddess is the agent of death in the former case.

As one may read in the festival of the of the Spring Equinox when the hours of daylight predominate to conquer the hours of darkness:-

In twilight of my foeman's might,
Mine eyes and inner-soul, alight

With powers the Elder tribes command,

Shot forth enchantment's burning brand.
There stood my foe in hapless plight

As lifeblood, breath and soul took flight.

With searing flash and waters' roar

Pryderi's spirit forth did soar

To savour brief Death's bitter kiss,

Then plummet through the black abyss."

Here His alter ego and/or aura Light comes to dazzle Pryderi and allows Gwydyon to deliver the coup de grâce.

In the four solar  festivals it is not Gwydyon the Sun who grows to full strength at the Summer Solstice and dies at the Winter Solstice, as the Sun never grows, dies nor is seen to change. 

It is Light, his alter ego or, should I say aura, which is seen to conquer darkness at the Spring Equinox, which grows to full strength at the Summer Solstice after which he starts to slowly weaken.

It is Light, therefore, not the Sun that sinks to its nadir at the Winter Solstice and is reborn, i.e. starts to ascend the following day.  And his aura is identified as Heulwen - The Lady/Spirit of Light, the mild warmth and solar radiation in each Solar Festival.

...............        LLYR LLEDIAETH - Sea God. (Arglwyd y Mor)

As such he is the balancer and the power underlying all concepts of a fluidic nature and rules the realm of Water of Spirit.  He is the keeper of the great deeps of the mind - the subliminal gnosis, the realm of human instincts apropos: -

1) spiritual evolution (Spirit of Water)
2) mentation (
Air of Water)
3) self-preservation - fight or flight (Fire of Water)
4) reproduction (
Water of Water)
5) gregariousness (Earth of

His sphere of governance in the human is the portion of the Abstract Mental Realm which is directed by the zodiacal water triplicity promoting the tendency to unifying thought and inner vision.   One could argue also that, due to tidal mechanics promoted by the Lunar Goddess and on account of the oceanic area in millions of kmpredominating over that of surface land mass, He must have a role to play in the general vibration and rhythm of our biosphere.

From the 'Manifestation of Llyr' in the Kaer Dathyl website, the three commonly recognised instincts are here in reverse order:- 

To dwell 'mid loving kin
And comfort lend,

To fling the portal wide
To newborn life

And freedom from the snares
That life may send -
These are from Thine hand,
Llyr Llediaith. 

..............         ARANROT - Earth Goddess.  (Mam [Arglwyddes] y Ddayar)

It is She who is the bringer forth of all earthly forms and is the Protectress of gestation and birth.  Therefore She is the Goddess of the manifestation of love and love itself, the ruler of fertility and nourisher of all life forms.  Indeed she has been given overview of such things as marriage, the forge,  (which melts the chains of winter), the hearth & home, healing, sowing and milking in allied tales (the Alma Mater).  Vide 'Y Dychweliad' ceremony in the Major Festivals.

As Earth Mother her realm is obviously Earth of Spirit, ruling the zodiacal earth triplicity  of the Abstract Mental Realm and its encouragement of unifying thought.

She too is seen in triple aspect: Maiden (Spring), Mature and pregnant Goddess (Summer) and Mother (Autumn/Harvest).

Here then is The Lady Who  literally grants us a living, feeds Her children and Whose herbal remedies brings health to the infirm.  She is the prime source of tuition by which we learn by example, inspiration and emotional uplift. 

Her governance of human physiology is as follows:- etheric body - hearing (Spirit of Earth), respiratory system - smell (Air of Earth), nervous system - sight (Fire of Earth), alimentary system - taste (Water of Earth), skeletal system & musculature - touch (Earth of Earth).

The Terrestrial Goddess, like the Cosmic and Lunar Goddesses is in triple aspect:-

  1. Maiden (virgin) in Spring - She who awakens as virgin following
..... Her sleep in Winter.

  2. Mature (and impregnated) - when she has been impregnated with
..... the sown seeds in Spring.  Her preganancy progresses in Summer.

  3. Mother of Her children - and we rejoice at Harvest at the birth,
..... growth and reaping of the Corn God in Autumn.

For all living creatures on our homeworld:-

  1. It is She who is the Goddess of birthing of all species of life-forms.
  2. She as Planetary Mater is responsible for the growth, health and
..... life of all denizens of Earth.

  3. The Earth Goddess is She who takes all life-forms into Her embrace on

Here is the land on which we live, move and have our being - the good earth where we are domiciled and which is all important to each individual.  As I wrote in The Portal of The Keltic Gods:- 

"The global location of a country with its climatic conditions, coupled with the territorial constraints of the country with its topography, permit a species of human to evolve with his own unique physical structure.

The climatic hazards peculiar to a location linked with the environmental hazards of the country's terrain, together with the race needs of food, water, body covering and shelter dictated by both 'hazard' factors produce a survival pattern in the race.

The effects of this essential survival pattern direct and redirect instinctual activity which mould the emotional temperament from which is born a unique mentality.  And it is this mentality which manifests spiritual predilections, generating philosophical patterns from which arise religious concepts that issue forth into overt religious practice." 

This in effect governs why one should be assimilated in the land on which one is born or on which one chooses to live - not being constantly pulled by the genetic markers of forebears from a country which one never has seen or perhaps never will see. Ergo, honour and love your birth or adoptive Earth Mother Who will care for you in life and literally welcome you back physically to Her arms in peace when your life is done.  To do otherwise, to demand more than She can give or to abuse & pollute Her is to dishonour & vampirize and seriously attack & disfigure your Mother - never forget this admonition!  This is why most 'pagan minded' individuals find financiers, technologists and a fair number of chemists/physicists/industrialists - all fired by greed or perhaps the contracts of the military, to be abominations in the eyes of caring humanity and the Earth Mother Herself!

A poem that I feel encapsulates the Earth Mother at the start of Spring is The Triumph of Charis by Ben Johnson (1572 - 1637).

..............         DYLAN, the Fish God and LLEU LLAW GYFFES, the Corn God

Via both these Deities we concern ourselves with Divinity at a very earthly (may I say combustible and physiological) level which bears the essence of the Sea & Sun Gods but at an exceedingly lower

Being in our earthly realm we may visualize them as they are in reality and being on an earthly stratum (but of Spirit) they should be consigned to the stratum of 'Spirit of Earth', a term which will be explained very shortly.

Merriam-Webster describes food thus: "In a physiological sense, true aliment is to be distinguished as that portion of the food a) which is capable of being digested and absorbed into the blood, thus furnishing nourishment, in distinction from the indigestible matter b) which passes out through the alimentary canal as fæces."  The a) and b) in that statement are mine, reminding one that both are aspects of this Cibarious Deity and that the effete material excreted by the gut is the dung whereby the earth is primed for future growth of vegetation.

Obviously an inland tribe would be preoccupied with Aranrot and Lleu with labour for a skilful sowing, favourable weather and a fruitful harvest while a coastal tribe would be more concerned with Llyr and Dylan to ensure a daily catch of marine life, calm seas and a blessing on coracles and the skills of their operators.

Gilfaethwy - the herald of Patriarchy. I do not call him a deity as his act of rape was a power manifestation issuing from the fire of aggression.  He is simply a symbol of explanation of the rise of destructive Patriarchy - the encouragement of PMS (Patriarchal Mind Set) in males of pubescent age onwards.  I thank Leslene della-Madre (vide page E12 of the Kaer Dathyl Website) for this expression.

Amaethon - deity of agriculture

Gofannon - deity of smith-craft & technology
Blodeuwedd - we have identified this lady in the Linguistic History but now can add a trifle more in her defence.  In her punishment by being transformed into an owl, she is given the legendary wisdom, or should I say intuition, that is this creature's hallmark and, of course, with wings which denote soaring spirituality.

As the owl is a night bird, this demonstrates woman's prerogative to be more atune with the Great Lady of Night - The Goddess of the Moon, on conscious and unconscious levels as well as physiological.  Her true path now lies open to her - the divine mystique of not only womankind but of human kind.


To return to the elite of the courts of the various Gods and Goddesses and the fact that they lie between divinity and man, they may be placed within the Elemental Kingdoms but at the summit of each.

 As we divided Spirit by elemental strata, so I propose the partitioning of each Elemental Realm in like manner to provide a continuum which intensifies specificity.  This may be a somewhat novel approach but, nevertheless, it does without doubt provide an exploded taxonomy which will be found to be workable.  I break this down in full as follows:-

Spirit of Air
Air of Air
Fire of Air
Water of Air
Earth of Air
Spirit of Fire
Air of Fire
Fire of Fire
Water of Fire
Earth of Fire
Spirit of Water
Air of Water 
Fire of Water
Water of Water
Earth of Water
Spirit of Earth
Air of Earth
Fire of Earth
Water of Earth
Earth of Earth

As The High Kindred are neither Higher Spirit nor of a mundane stratum, they may be apportioned the following realms:- 

Spirit of Air
Spirit of Fire
Spirit of Water
Spirit of Earth
High Kindred of The Winds
High Kindred of The Flame
High Kindred of The Wave
High Kindred of Earth

The loosest equivalent to The High Kindred in Christianity may be found in angelology.  They are what is termed the nobles (Old Welsh Degion, pl.) of the Guorsed (Mod. Welsh Gorsedd) Court at the Pedeir Kaerau elfenau (Four elemental Castles) of the Deities - a type of administrative hierarchy which is more approachable than a deity itself or that exude the power of a Deity but at a geared down rate.


It is now time to consider these Elemental Realms or Kingdoms to define their characteristics.  The following considerations, however, are by no means exhaustive and merely demonstrate a fraction of the analogies perceived by humanity within each realm itself or where it impinges upon Spirit or any other Element as a subdivision.

These analogies are simply a method of providing human consciousness with a mundane understanding of these protyles behind the various degrees of manifestation from inner-plane level to the gross material plane.  It must be remembered that a manifestation is that which is perceived but not necessarily seen, e.g. the wind, an emotion, an instinct, a pain or a nightmare etc..

...............        ELEMENT OF AIR

As with gasses, where the molecules repel each other and diffuse to their uttermost limits giving freedom to each, the Element of Air may be given the following correspondences:-

general correspondences

memory; intellectualism; teaching; divination; mountain tops; tree tops; skies; towers; floating leaves; chimes; schools; libraries; floating; suspending; soprano voice; sense of smell, thorax & lungs; all woodwinds especially piccolo & flute; forte trumpet; fortissimo strings; guitar; triangle; glockenspiel; tubular bells; birds; winged insects; the strengths & weaknesses of the zodiacal air triplicity.

positive qualities

freedom; freshness; lightness; enthusiasm; uplift; cheerfulness; eagerness; optimism; mind; inspiration; mentation; memories; exhilaration; voices; woodwind instruments; wind; independence; breathing; invigoration; life; emptiness (expectation); morning; spring; youth; expansion; incense; smell; perfume; feather; bird; arrow; spear; colour blue.

negative qualities

gossiping; slyness; fickleness; dishonesty; boasting; garrulity; emptiness (loss); hurricane, tempest.


Likewise as the essential property of fire is transmutation to other planes, the following properties may be allocated:-

general correspondences

warmth; cooking; heat; volcanic rock; iron; fires; deserts; hot springs; volcanoes; barbecues; ovens; fireplaces; courage; copulation; energy; strength; virility; surgery; authority; burning; hot spices; peppers; spikey leaves (holly); stinging plants (nettles); thorns; snake; scorpion; wild felines (lion & tiger etc.); righteous anger; head, nervous system, eyes & sight; ; tenor voice; oboe & cor anglais; forte trumpet (muted); harpsichord;  snare drum; castanets; cymbals; the strengths & weaknesses of the zodiacal fire triplicity.

positive qualities

light; illumination; inner vision; clarity of consciousness; activity; character; integrity; self preservation; heavenly radiance; ripening; the forge; willpower; noon; summer; maturity; fire; sparks; the nervous system; colour red.

negative qualities

jealousy; passion; irritability; anger; hatred; spitefulness; discord; volcano; lightning; wrath; hate; anger, destruction; war.


Similarly , as the molecules of liquids are free-moving, the following correspondences are relative:-

general correspondences

cleansing; healing; psychism; flowing; moving; purifying; healing; soothing; lakes; springs; streams; rivers; oceans; wells; fountains; beaches; aquatic plants; silver; abdominal cavity and contents; contralto voice; clarinet; pizzicato violins; mezzo forte horn; harp; xylophone; Korean woodblock; duck; otter; dolphin; whale; seal; fish and shellfish; colour green; the strengths & weaknesses of the zodiacal water triplicity.

positive qualities

flowing; protecting; sustaining; rhythmic; psychism; modesty; tranquillity; devotion; calmness; forgiveness; tenderness; sensitivity; reproductive instinct; love; compassion; docility; cordiality; magnetic; fermentation; drinking; cup; alimentary system; gustatory sense; evening; autumn; old age; decay; sea; river; tide; ship; colour green.

negative qualities

indifference; apathy; instability; shyness; insipidity; negligence; tidal wave; drowning.


Lastly, bearing in mind that the molecules of solids adhere, the following are the relative correspondences:-

general correspondences

nourishment; solidity; fertility; gravity; tactile sense; stability; strength; community; agriculture; mountain; hill; stone; cave; footsteps; legs, skeletal system and musculature; caves, chasms; valleys; forests; fields; farms; gardens; mines; holes; money; business; investment; material possessions; agriculture; ecology; conservation; construction; death; bass voice, bassoon, bass clarinet, bass trombone tuba, celesta, all percussion instruments but especially timpani and bass drum; stones; trees; knots; binding; rocks, plants especially the roots; the strengths & weaknesses of the zodiacal earth triplicity.

positive qualities

weight; heaviness; objectivity;  incarnation; enduring;  resolution; seriousness; sobriety;  finiteness; contentment; herd instinct; thoroughness; punctuality; responsibility; resistance; security; respectability;  night; winter;  shield; colour brown.

negative qualities

dullness; tardiness; laziness; greed; unreliability; death; unscrupulousness; irregularity; landslide.

These analogies are beneficial in understanding the wide-ranging influence of these four broadly based protyles on whatever level - abstract/conceptual, behavioural or purely physical.  The validity of many will become clear when we come to consider the interface of force with the human organism.  The above lists are by no means exhaustive.

With the foregoing done, we may in diagrammatic form show the distribution of The Deities and The High Kindred of the pantheon in the following manner:-

Taxonomy of The Deities Alone

First differentiation
Receptor / Donor     Virgin Cosmic Goddess Dôn (& extension, Math) +
 ............................... Cosmic God Beleu + (Gwynn, firstborn)

SPIRIT     Spirit        Mature Cosmic Goddess Dôn
                   Air          Cosmic Mother Goddess Dôn + Penarddun (Moon
............................................................................................................ Goddess)
                   Fire         Cosmic Mother Goddess Dôn + Gwydyon (Sun God)
                   Water      Cosmic Mother Goddess Dôn + Llyr Llediaeth (Sea God)
                   Earth       Cosmic Mother Goddess Dôn + Aranrot (Earth Goddess)
.................................[Gilfaethwy, Amaethon & Gofannon]

AIR           Spirit       High Kindred of The Wind

FIRE         Spirit       High Kindred of The Flame

WATER    Spirit       High Kindred of The Wave

EARTH     Spirit      High Kindred of Earth + Dylan and Lleu Llaw Gyffes

As birth and death are ongoing processes at all levels of manifestation, the influences of Dôn, Math, Beleu and Gwynn permeate all strata continuously from Spirit of SPIRIT downwards.  From the above we may first glimpse the Metaphysical Law of Pyramidic Construction.

1      Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (CDM, California) 1992
2      Inner Traditions of Magic by William Gray (Aquarian Press) 1970.
2a////Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (Anchor Books) 1995
2b    The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell  (New Jersey: Princeton University ........Press) 1949
2b.1 An Outline of the Principals and Concepts of The New Metaphysics page 1 by Dr. J J Williamson ........(Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.) 1967
2c    Witten, Edward. Radio interview, Vetandets värld, Swedish public radio, 6 June 2008.
2c.0 'Particles and Beyond' - Speech delivered by Xavier Bilonon on 7 March 2012 at University of the Philippines Diliman.
2c.1 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad chapt. 6
       (Shankara Bhashya translated by Swami Madhavananda 1950)
2c.2 Wikipedia.
2d    on line Dictionary of Sanskrit
2e     ibid.
2f     Dominion Of Dreams Under The Dark Star Part II 'The Wells of Peace' by
        Fiona Macleod (Duffield & Company, New York) 1910. 
3      The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966.
3a     Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 10-Apr-13.
         ' Traditional Maori religion – nga karakia a te Maori - Nga atua – the gods' by Basil Keane.
4       The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966.
4a.0   Kaer Dathyl Website.
4a/////Madhya 9.175 - C.C. Madhya Illa = Meditation on Srimate Radharani. 
4a.1   The endocrine System by J.G. Lewis (Penguin Education) 1973
4a.2   The Sin Eater, The Washer of The Ford & Other Legendary Moralities by Fiona Macleod ..........(William Heinemann) 1919.
4b     'On Generation and Corruption' also known as 'On Coming to Be and Passing Away' Book 1,
 .........Part1  paragraphs 2 and 5 by Aristotle

4c/////Voices of the First Day by Robert Lawlor (Inner Traditions International Ltd., Vermont) ..........1991
5        Inner Traditions of Magic by William Gray (Aquarian Press) 1970. AND
          Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (CDM, California) 1992
6        The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966.
6a       An Outline of the Principals and Concepts of The New Metaphysics by Dr.J J Williamson ..........(Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.) 1967
7        Kundalini Yoga by M.P. Pandit (Ganesh & Co. Madras) 1971 AND
          Initiation into Hermetics by Franz Bardon (Osiris-Verlag, W. Germany) 1962.
8        Psychology & Religion: West and East.  Coll. Works of C.G. Jung vol. 11.
9       The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966.


Before attempting to relate the Keltic Deities with human kind, we must scrutinise closely the various levels of humanity and endeavour to provide the requisite areas of linkage.

Perhaps the best broad analysis of this extended anatomy is to be found in "The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage" by Dion Fortune (Society of The Inner Light, 1967).  It may best be encapsulated in this way.

The uppermost plane of being is termed the Upper Spiritual Plane, Plane of Pure Spirit or Plane of Abstract Spirit.  This seventh plane is the level of the Divine spark or monad which indwells each human and which is drawn from the Great Unmanifest. We shall adopt the term ABSTRACT SPIRITUAL.

The next or sixth plane is called the Lower Spiritual Plane or Plane of Concrete Spirit.  This is the plane of spiritual tendency which governs the karmic needs of the individual spirit and the spiritual experiences which are required for the evolution of the monad over an aeon.  Here  a certain 'ray' will provide the keynote of the spirit and its predisposition, for example animism, polytheism or monotheism and the various branches of these depending upon the culture of one's birth.  Again we shall adopt the term CONCRETE SPIRITUAL.

The fifth plane is referred to as the Upper Mental Plane or Plane of Abstract Mind where we meet the type of mind shown in the various zodiacal triplicities with the predisposition of each for a basic form of thinking.  In the positive signs of air and fire the tendency is for diffused philosophical thought processes, while in the negative signs of water and earth the tendency is to unify in scientific processes of thought.  The name ABSTRACT MENTAL will be used for clarity.

The fourth plane, Lower Mental or Plane of Concrete Mind, is characterised by finiteness with concrete thoughts, memory and reasoning processes.  CONCRETE MENTAL will adequately describe this plane in our work.  There is no need to further partition into left cerebral hemispheric factual storage and right hemispheric thinking im gestalten or picture consciousness.

Gestalten - German, 'shape', from Middle High German. From the past participle of stellen, to place, from Old High German.(1)

The third plane or Upper Astral is the plane of emotions with their overt desires.  For simplification we shall term this the EMOTIONAL plane.

The second plane, Lower Astral or Psychic Plane is the plane of instincts with their more covert desires. The simple term INSTINCTUAL will be used when dealing with this plane of being.

The first plane and lowest plane or Physical Plane is the material body of facia/musculature/bones, blood and the fluidic nature of the various physiological systems.  We shall. therefore, employ the word
MATERIAL when discussing the lowest plane.

Using these broad classifications, I shall apply the elemental subdivisions as proposed and described in Part Two to flesh-out or expand the above seven concepts into greater detail to create an intensification of specificity.

Perhaps it is best to commence with the physical vehicle of the human.  As it is the densest part of the human organism, Earth is the appropriate qualifying element.

When subdividing the element of Earth at this physiological level, Earth of Earth must correspond to the skeletal system together with cartilaginous material and musculature.

Water of Earth will govern the obvious watery nature of the alimentary system.  Granted anything of a fluidic nature such as lymphatics, renal system, cerebro-spinal fluid etc. could appear to lie within this classification, but we are attempting here to maintain broadly based analogies.

This regional approach (i.e. epigastrium/abdomen/pelvis) must, therefore, suffice.

Similarly Fire of Earth is allocated to the complete nervous system from the brain with its electrical discharges to all nerve endings throughout the human corpus.

Air of Earth logically applies to the respiratory system which is in the thoracic area.

Spirit of Earth we have profiled with the Etheric, Astral or Vital Body.

The senses are distributed likewise in the elemental subdivision:-

Spirit of Earth
Air     of Earth

Fire    of Earth

Water of Earth
Earth  of Earth
etheric body
respiratory system

nervous system

alimentary system 

skeletal system 
auditory sense
olfactory sense

visual sense

gustatory sense

tactile sense
As we approach the inner-plane levels, we meet the basic instincts of the subliminal gnosis or the unconscious mind as we recede from the earthy level to that of water.  Here we meet the three basic instincts - those of self-preservation, reproduction  and the gregarious/herd instincts. These may be classified thus:-
Spirit  of Water
Air     of Water
Fire    of Water
Water of Water

Earth  of Wate    

Self-preservation (fight or flight)


Gregariousness (earthly security)

The upper two levels can be seen to have no corresponding instincts.  Nevertheless I have always maintained that the human mind has two further instincts - instinctual activity relating to a) mentation and b) spiritual evolution.  The human mind cannot do other than think.  Indeed, when attempting to perform passive meditation in the early stages, one usually finds great difficulty in emptying the mind of thought - it appears contrary to its nature.

Similarly the spirit's prime task in incarnation is to grow in stature and, to achieve any growth, it must signal to the mind via the instinctual level to aid it in the great work.  We may now complete the above two omissions to read:-

Spirit  of Water
Air     of Water

Fire    of Water

Water of Water
Earth  of Water
Spiritual evolution




The plane of overt emotional impulses assigned to the element of Fire give the following correspondences:-
Spirit  of Fire
Air     of Fire

Fire    of Fire

Water of Fire

Earth  of Fire 

Spiritual fervour
Anger, Hate


When dealing with the Concrete Mind we are more concerned with functions, attributing to the mind the element of Air.

Spirit of Air
r     of Air
Fire    of Air

Water of Air

Earth  of Air


Finite and

The Abstract Mind we have already stated is concerned with the personality type as governed by the four triplicities. Here the correspondences follow the logical attribution under the governance of Spirit.
Air     of Spirit
Fire    of Spirit

Water of Spirit

Earth  of Spirit
Air triplicity
Fire triplicity

Water triplicity

Earth triplicity

Spirit of Spirit:  Spiritual Ray (vehicle of spiritual growth) refers to the realm of Concrete Spirit and finds its place at the summit of the above arrangement.

The Spiritual Ray or, as I am wont to describe it, the vehicle of spiritual growth is the path which one must follow according to karmic dictates to permit the requisite factors for spiritual growth in any incarnation to be applied.  Such a path, as we have said, may be polytheistic (e.g. Hinduism, Jainism, Paganism etc.), monotheistic (Christianity, Judaism or Islam), animistic or of the Eastern mystery genre such as Taoism, Shinto or Bahai) or indeed agnosticism and atheism.   Such a list, needless to say, can never be exhaustive.

The level of Abstract Spirit, the spiritual nucleus in each human comes directly from The Absolute - the Realm of The Great Mother and The All-Father.  Its function must be the evolution or distillation of itself throughout an aeon via many, many incarnations to be reabsorbed eventually into That Which gave it existence - Y Gwynfa Gorawen, The Paradise of Rapture through the Dragon Gates - the same dragons that pull Beleu's car above Eryri (Snowdon) perhaps?  This is portrayed in "Glimpses of Gwynfyd" on Kaer Dathyl website:-

"Sentinels in Stone stand we
Guarding the gargantuan gate -
Impenetrable structure adamantine
Of terrifying dimensionality
That blights with vertigo extreme
Th'unwary wand'rer by symmetry bizarre,
A veritable feast of hyperbolic façades."
The ending of the above endorses the origin of the human monad whither it is destined to return:-

"Overawed by vistas inconceivable,
Lo hast thou found
Gwynfa Gorawen,
Divinest Dwelling-place
That ever was thine own."
This design now appears in diagrammatic form with all the functions of mind, emotions, instincts and physical systems profiled.  Other areas of correspondence can be devised easily at the reader's leisure.

The Human Organism




ex Absolute
Abstract Spiritual

Divine Nucleus

Evolution of Itself
Divine Spirit
Concrete Spiritual
Spiritual Ray
Life Spirit

Abstract Mental

Air triplicity

diffused thought

Human Spirit
Fire triplicity
diffused thought
Human Spirit
Abstract Mental
Water triplicity
unifying thought
Human Spirit
Abstract Mental
Earth triplicity
unifying thought
Human Spirit
Concrete Spiritual extension
Vital Body
Concrete mental
memories determine:- 
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Human Mind
Concrete Spiritual extension
Spiritual fervour
Vital Body
Desire Body
which determines:1&2
Desire Body
Desire Body
Desire Body
Concrete Spiritual extension
Spiritual evolution
Vital Body
1. instinctive activity,
Desire Body
Self preservation
seeking the pleasant and
Desire Body
avoiding the unpleasant
Desire Body
influencing: 2
Desire Body

Concrete Spiritual extension


Etheric Body - hearing

 2. endocrine function 
&  impulses
to the:-
Vital Body
Respiratory system - smell
Dense Body
Nervous system - sight
nervous system which
Dense Body
Alimentary system - taste
result in: 3
Dense Body
Skeletal system - touch
3. physical action
Dense Body

(With the above as example, one may glimpse the appearance of a mirror diagram which shows the aberrations on the various planes.  The writer has noted this on occasions when dealing with those of a decidedly unsavoury disposition.)

Here follows an explanation of the above right hand column in relation to basic psychological parlance for those with an interest in human psychology.

1. Individuality / Monad (Unit of Evolution)

    Divine Spirit (Guardian Genius)
    Life Spirit    (Superconscious)

i.e. That which lasts for an aeon and is reincarnated many times until sufficient incarnate experiences have been assimilated to grant its return to The Absolute whence it came.

2. Personality / Soul (Unit of Incarnation)

    Human Spirit
    Human Mind
    Vital Body

i.e. That which lasts for one life - an interface to allow the spirit to experience incarnate life.

    Human Spirit = Personality Traits 

    Human Mind = Conscious Memory 

    Vital Body     = Higher Personal Unconscious +
                              Higher Collective
    Desire Body  = Lower Personal Unconscious +
                             Lower Collective Unconscious.

Higher/Lower Personal Unconscious +
Higher/Lower Collective Unconscious = 
The Unconscious

[The Unconscious Mind is also referred to as the 'Subliminal Gnosis' and the 'Involuntary Memory'.]  (vide the works of C.G. Jung)

3. The lowest level of Spirit which is Spirit of Earth is the Etheric or Astral Body.  It is the emanation or 'force-field' of the soul through the Etheric Body that is the Aura - the rampart of defence against psychic/astral attack and invasion by any vortex of negative (detrimental) energy. The Aura or field of bio-energy now appears to have the following constituents:-

1. The 'soul stuff' which exudes from higher realms. -ve Spirit

2. Vital energy from higher spiritual realms + solar  rays
     etc to
help maintain incarnational manifestation. 
+ve Spirit

3. The Mental portion e.g. level of dynamic will felt from
Air Element

4. The Emotional portion (eg. the calmness, anger 
     etc. felt from a person).
Fire Element

5. The Instinctual portion (eg. levels of animal
    magnetism i.e. sensuality felt from a person). 
Water Element

6. The Material portion.   (This would contain
    excreted atoms of
human cells, body heat rays etc.)
Earth Element

4. Dense Body or Physical Body

The human form and fleshly vehicle which last but one incarnation.

We now have the complete system of correspondences with one exception - the inclusion of the Keltic Deities and shall add These to provide the final taxonomy and interface - the object of this exposition.

Interface and Cascading Sequence
(Metaphysical Law of Interpenetration)

The Absolute
Don (virgin)/Math (destiny)
None (noumenal)
  Divine Substance.
The ONE prior to
and  in extension
Divine Substance
before manifestation
Divine Spirit
ex Absolute
Dôn & Beleu
Fedwid 1
Abstract Spiritual
The spirits no longer
having the need to
Extrusion by &
Reabsorption by The One
Divine Spirit
ex Absolute
Gwynn (first born)
Abstract Spiritual
Door Keeper
  to birth and death
Reception of those
newly departed
Divine Spirit
.ex Absolute
.  .
Dôn & Beleu
Fedwid 2
.Abstract Spiritual
.Evolution of itself
Maintaining incarnate
life in humans
Divine Spirit
in the human
 /  /  /  /  /  /  /  /
/ / / / / / / /
    / / / / / / / /
Dôn (mature) + Beleu
Concrete Spiritual
Spiritual Ray
Spiritual tendency
Life Spirit
Dôn (mother) + Penarddun
Abstract Mental
Air triplicity
diffused thought
Human Sprt
Don (mother) + Gwydyon
Abstract Mental
Fire Triplicity
diffused thought
Human Sprt
Dôn (mother) + Llyr
Abstract Mental
Water triplicity
unifying thought
Human Sprt
Dôn (mother) + Aranrot
(Gilfaethwy, Amaethon &
Abstract Mental
Earth triplicity
unifying thought
Human Sprt
H/K of The Winds
Concrete Spiritual extension
Vital Body
Concrete Mental
memories determine:-
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Psychism & sensitivity
Human Mind
Concrete Mental
Human Mind
H/K of The Flame
Concrete Spiritual extension
Spiritual fervour
Vital Body
emotional reaction which
Desire Body
Desire Body
Desire Body
Desire Body
.H/K of The Wave
Concrete Spiritual extension
Spiritual evolution
Vital Body
  1. instinctive activity, 
Desire Body
Self preservation
seeking the pleasant and
Desire Body
avoiding the unpleasant,
Desire Body
     influencing 2.
Desire Body
Dylan & Lleu + H/K
of Earth
Concrete Spiritual extension
Etheric Body
2.  endocrin
function and
  impulses to:-
Vital Body
Respiratory systm
Dense Body
Nervous system
     nervous system
      which result in:-
Dense Body
Alimentary systm
Dense Body
Skeletal system
   3. physical action
Dense Body

Within each Elemental Stratum we find an example of
the Metaphysical Law of Factual Area.

From Spirit of Spirit downwards,
the continuing influence of
the impregnated Dôn in Her extruding aspect,
Math as the action/reaction Principle, Beleu and
Gwynn, the Birth & Death Principles, are all implicit.


Spiritual Nucleus
Divine Spirit
  .   .
  .   .
1. Human Spirit
Personality Traits

2. Human Mind
Consciousness & Memory

3. Vital Body

Higher Personal/Collective Uncs.


Etheric body

4.Vital &
        Desire Body
often termed Astral Body or Body of Light


Field of bio-energy
Protective shield

Dense Body

Physical Frame

Anatomy &

The exposition is nearing an end.    Although we have established the relationship between the Keltic Deities and humankind, perhaps more has been done in reality. 

It may also demonstrate how the old tribes or warbands of the British Isles maintained a necessary link with Divinity at an earlier epoch of human society.    And the idea of linkage returns us full circle to the original meaning of the word 'religion' which is derived from the Latin 'religare' meaning 'to join again'.

The object of any religion, be it monotheistic or a form of polytheism, should be the re-joining of human kind with that which gave them existence in a meaningful, rewarding rapport during incarnate life and the re-joining of their spirits permanently with Total Divinity at the end of the aeon.

Although we have demonstrated how an interface is possible between various dimensions of The Absolute or Pure Spirit, it falls to the personal effort of an individual not only to forge these links for him/herself but to maintain a facile channel for the flow of that Essence.

What has not been shown (and it must remain out with the scope of this thesis) is the methodology of practical working utilising such strata, forces or factors.

The ancient Keltic myths were written in what is known as the Bardic triads.  Yes, much is in three-line stanzas, but the 'triadic' concept means very much more.  A myth had in reality three functions:-

a) The provision of a story which could be transmitted 'mouth to ear',  i.e orally and which, therefore, could be remembered with ease to remain a bulwark of the culture, transmitting data down the generations.

b) The means of exhibiting The Deities of a pantheon in a covert fashion, the real understanding of These being entrusted to the 'cognoscenti' or priesthood of perhaps a caste similar to, if not in actuality, the Druidesses and Druids.

c) The transmission of hidden practical working to make use of certain strata of power (mere hints in the myths).  The making of the gifts for Pryderi from mushrooms is but one example of a very mundane physical/chemical practical method.

The methods of invocation, the telesmic imagery used in meditation, the degrees of leverage to allow power to impinge upon the physical plane and even much herbal lore alluded to in The Red Book and Black Book Mabinogi may never be rediscovered in total but the understanding of such methodology may be increased by the sequella or outcome to the Taxonomy in Part 5.

Be all that as it may, what we have rediscovered and revealed by research is a Pantheon which is the basis of a formal refined system that was used by the warbands of the Northern portion of Kymru and various Kymraec parts of Britain, details of which corroborate the writing of the Roman historian Pliny who stated, when talking of Britain, "It might seem possible that she taught magic to the Persians!" (1a)

Our investigation may add a little to the subject of Comparative Religion which is concerned with the "Idea of God" throughout many eras. (2)

Some similarity may be found between the ancient pre-Christian religion of the British Kelt and Hinduism, Shinto et al., as it was a naturally evolved system unaided by the appearance of any prophet or avatar who might have bequeathed a lasting imprint of personality or ego upon all matters.  There was no one to make grand (and often spurious) announcements of "Thus saith the Lord" or "Thus spake the Goddess" as found in the more modern religions.  It appears that the religion was and still is largely experiential with the divers aspects of Nature as mentor and example.

It is interesting to note that the early Kelts may well have said like us today that "Everything formed or unformed is godlike." (3)   But did they regard themselves as Sons and Daughters of God?   Did they subscribe to any fraction of the Metaphysical concept that "There is but one Mind, one Law, one Principle, one Substance in The Universe and I AM one with all there is?" (4)

The latter question perhaps may be answered in the affirmative but in this wise: "There is but one Goddess (Substance), one God (Mind), one Divine Intent (Principle), one Law (Tyghet, i.e. Karma) in The Cosmos and I AM one with all there is."  And in this affirmation, the Kelts rejoice in kinship with the many ethnic peoples such as the ethnic American tribes, The First Nations of Canada, ethnic Australians, Hindus and many many more - yes, including those who embrace the Tantric Essence.  So everything - The Cosmos and all therein contained, including the smallest yocto and nano-particle, is Divine, i.e. pure Pantheism.

We are aware, however, that the Kelts did conceptualise that which was beyond the pantheon - that which they termed "Ffynhonnell" (The Source). (5)

This 'Source' appears to be the Divine Concubinage of Cosmic Goddess and God - a Divine Unity prior to the first differentiation.    It has its counterpart in Esoteric Buddhism, in the androgynous Brahman of the Hindu and the Deities in myth of the Australian aborigine. (6)

The philosophers of the oldest school of Buddhism in Nepal call this 'Svabhava' - the one infinite and unknown Essence existing from all eternity and which is the rootless cause of all that was, is or ever shall be. (7)  Perhaps in conclusion we should examine the anatomy of this concept.

It is usually symbolised by a) Absolute Abstract Space which represents pure subjectivity, a malleable root-substance and b) Absolute Abstract Motion which represents unconditioned consciousness - these two existing in perfect union, a quantum singularity awaiting differentiation. This differentiation of complementary passive and active poles within the Ffynhonnell into Cosmic Goddess and Cosmic God, as the Kelt and indeed all with a similar view of cosmogenesis + Nature as instructor, considered both to be essential.

The pre-cosmic Root Substance is that feminine part of The Absolute which is the bedrock of all objective planes of manifestation.  The Unconditioned Consciousness is the male aspect which takes the character of pre-cosmic Ideation.  It has been called the fons et origo of force and supplies the guiding intelligence in the vast cosmic scheme of evolution.

As the pre-cosmic Root Substance is the noumenon which is the root of all protyles (pre matter) in the various levels or densities of its differentiation, so pre-cosmic Ideation is the noumenal root of all individual consciousness.

I clearly feel that the amalgam of these two aspects of The Absolute were essential to the existence of the manifested cosmos.   Without Cosmic Substance, Cosmic Ideation could not manifest as INDIVIDUAL consciousness, as it was only through a vehicle of matter (Mater) that individual consciousness rises up as "I AM I."

I am indebted here to Madame Blavatsky - The Substance was necessary to accept the focus of a ray of Universal Mind at each unique stage of complexity but, if it had NOT been considered necessary by the Great Mind to do so, NO cosmos whatsoever would have been manifested by It. (8)

Without Cosmic Ideation, therefore, Cosmic Substance would have remained an empty abstraction and sterile and no emergence of consciousness would have ensued.    The manifested cosmos, therefore, is pervaded by the complementary duality comprising The One which is the very essence of ex-istence in manifestation.  The Kelts and such as held/hold similar beliefs conceived and still conceive this complementary bi-polarity as female/male, NOT the confrontational bi-polarity as evil/good that is the custom of the later patriarchal religions.s.



What is of value in this Taxonomy and what prompted the writer to commence this particular research? Its use in practical Metaphysical working. 

1) As a pointer to physical healing, one should be guided in the element required by looking to the Earth element and its subdivisions.  This area too should be of value for practitioners who employ herbal, crystal, colour, sonic or hypnotherapeutic remedies in healing techniques. 

a) When healing is concentrated on bone, facia, cartilege or muscle, the element employed would be Earth. 

b) Should the organs requiring treatment be of the alimentray tract viz.  oesophagus,stomach, small intestine & large intestine, the element of Water would be appropriate.

c) As the nervous system falls within the element of Fire, one may assume that this would be the element of choice. Perhaps yes, should a nerve require reawakening but if there is hyperactivity/irritability in the nerve on should look for a counteractant in an opposing element, in this case Earth. Yet another area presents as Fire houses electrical fluids - the treatment of excess electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus  in Chronic Kidney Disease.

d) Air would be commensurate with treatment of the URT (including the frontal & maxillary sinuses, bronchi and lungs.

e) Positive Spirit would be the appropriate element in dealing with the auditory meatus, tympanum, ossicles, semicircular canals and the organ of Corti.  However if the problem be of air pressures on either side of the tympanic  membrane, the element of Air could be employed. 
2. Where the area of Metaphysical healing is within the mental realm dealing with a) instincts, b) emotions or with c) mentation (the psychological or psychiatric sphere), one could be guided in the use of the requisite element in the Water, Fire and Air areas. 

What is considered here are the elemental markers used in the composition of such things as guided meditations in hypnotherapy to intensify relaxation or as a tool prior to hypnotic regression. In addition, the elements may be useful in the formulation of questions used in dialogue in hypnoanalysis.  The subdivision of the major element should be introduced to work in sympathy with the instincts, the emotions and in the Concrete Mental sphere.   Yet another point of consideration is the sympathetic use of the elements corresponding to the zodiacal triplicity of the subject.

3) The top area of the above interface is a guide for particular invocations required in all areas of practical Metaphysical working, in counselling and indeed for meditation for personal inspiration. 

4) The elemental realms or areas of force, as they descend in cascading sequence, will be guides in the use of tactile,visual, sonic and olfactory imagery which are aids in all practical operations, i.e. the choice of colour, music and incenses.

5) There are many other pointers within this Taxonomy for working in areas such as parochial stabilisation within a conurbation and eradication of certain prevalent and serious social ills but I must leave it to the operator's ingenuity to recognise these areas in the Taxonomy and to develop the necessary techniques.  In one or two of such areas there is a slight similarity to the practicalities of Fountain International.

As we have seen how the descending influences of Noumena and Protyles influence areas of the psyche and indeed human physiology, so too should we consider traveling upward to meet these strata of cosmic powerhouses to our betterment.

6) Finally we have found in many instances our assistance being requested in cases of psychic terrorism, negative invasion or astral attack as some may term it.  There is much need to curtail such operations in society and we ask those working in paranormal areas to exercise vigilance and endeavour to eradicate this evil abude wherever it is found. 

Is no one willing to take control over the Google advertisements appearing atop certain New Age, Pagan and Wiccan websites and their many group pages?  "Do you want to get rid of someone from your life?  Our Wanga Dolls might be the answer!"

Ergo, if someone wants rid of a mother-in-law or a business partner or an ailing father with cash to bequeath or a wife who is no longer attractive but with 3 or 4 kids, JUST GO AHEAD AND DO IT!  Even if a fatal accident is the outcome?   This list is by no means exhaustive. 

We see similar products and instruction manuals in New Age, Horoscope, Zodiacal magazines daily here in the UK.  These are not for so-called 'witches', Wiccans, pagans, magicians, Qabalists, adherents of a New Age religion, etc., but for rank and file SELFISH AMATEUR MEDDLERS with questionable ethics and complete dearth of morals in the general community.

As one who has had to sort out the mess perpetrated by such amoral creatures on occasions, I am sick to death seeing a steady proliferation of such products.  Here in Britain the typical example is Finbar's book catalogue which advertises how, for example, to manipulate a judge's decision to your favour or force a partner to return to you.   (Even if the partner is the victim of a vicious wife-beater? - my question.)

I should have thought that such websites would be administered by webmasters who have the sense and moral prudence to block such advertisements.  Alas much is allowed to permeate the net in modern times - all in the cause of inflated profitability in someone's market. 


As I have declared my observation on many many occasions -
The whole world is fired by GREED!


What is also evident, when one puts 1 + 1 together, the sat + tan of Tantrik philosophy, the sum does not compute to 666.  It corrupted most vilely the image of the Dark Mother and perversely gave Her a gender reassignment and concocted the blatant blasphemous lie that the now HE was the ultimate sink of all iniquities, enormity and evil - Satan or the Devil. as suggested by (un)holy Mother Church.

Note well that the name of the public prosecutor on Hebrew theophanic strata (whose remit is to accuse and demand punishment of the wicked) is Sheitan and his Arabic counterpart Sheytan as well as Iblis(The plural Shayaateen is the Arabic for devils or demons - Qlippoth in Hebrew.) 

Neither is Satan which is the contrived elision of sat & tan. 
On the other hand they may have taken satan directly from Sanskrit in which language sat means "truth".  An is a diminutive of Anata (eternal), therefore satan means "truth eternal".  The Church's perverse exercise unconsciously gave us 'eternal truth' satan, revealing their clumsy transmogrification to be a lie.  Who is the Father of lies now?  (Something Freudian here?)

The Church also incorporated the attributes of Deities such as Gwynn into this frightful and negative thought-form.  St. Gregory the Great, Pope from 590 - 604, was the first to allot to the Christian Devil the physical attributes of elder Deities - and so he dressed the transformed sat-tan in the horns and hooves of the rustic Pan, the limp of Wotan, the black complexion of Saturn and the beard of Thor.




Added to this, of course, were the fires of Gehenna or Hell with which the followers of such creatures would be tormented.  In this, Christianity allotted to 'Death's Escort' the claiming of the human soul , so transferring the horn or pathway to Paradise to this neo-devil as the key to Hell, causing the pagan Psychopompos aspect to become abhorrent.   The bestial aspects which were added thereunto simply represented what was detestable to the Christian hierarchy of those times - enjoyable sexual love.

By this additive, the second horn, the fecundity aspect, was ripped from the forehead of Gwynn and similar Deities leaving them
akeratophorous.  And the repression of this natural instinct was to form complexes which would be the trigger for innumerable fantasies and pseudo-possessions in later centuries, especially within the hotbeds of celibacy - monasteries and convent

It was the same academics who, in indulging in gematria, believed that as the number 2 was the first number to break away from the unity of 1 (God) it was, therefore, a feminine and evil number.  With a trifle more study, however, they would have realised that on the Rabbinical Otz Chiim the male Chokmah is the first sephira to depart from Kether while the next and third femininen sephira Binah was the Ama and the Aima - sterile and fertile mothers respectively with the colour black.
Mind you, all this is not unexpected as the Catholic Church was and is a seething hotbed of Patriarchal complexes and much more.  
Nevertheless but erroneously, odd numbers to the Christian priesthood remained good & masculine while all even numbers remained evil & feminine.

This enforced metamorphosis also provided a long-term bonus by which the Church could be perpetuated - the provision of an evil entity (The Devil) which could be used as a weapon to frighten, threaten and coerce its followers thus maintaining an ensured captive congregation, their captivity being the cruel iron chains of dogma and doctrine.  Here was the real deal and ideal raison d'etre of The Church militant per omnia saecula saeculorum! (9)

A contemplative Diaboloj

"So The Church was the womb that bore me!"

I quote from "The Origin of Satan" by Elaine Pagels, Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University:-

"In the Hebrew Bible, as in mainstream Judaism to this day, Satan never appears as Western Christendom has come to know him, as the leader of an “evil empire,” an army of hostile spirits who make war on God and humankind alike.  As he first appears in the Hebrew Bible, Satan is not necessarily evil, much less opposed to God. On the contrary, he appears in the book of Numbers and in Job as one of God's obedient servants—a messenger, or angel, a word that translates the Hebrew term for messenger (ma’lak) into Greek (angelos). In Hebrew, the angels were often called “sons of God” (bene ‘elohim), and were envisioned as the hierarchical ranks of a great army, or the staff of a royal court.

In biblical sources the Hebrew term the satan describes an adversarial role. It is not the name of a particular character.  Although Hebrew storytellers as early as the sixth century B.C.E. occasionally introduced a supernatural character whom they called the satan, what they meant was any one of the angels sent by God for the specific purpose of blocking or obstructing human activity. The root stn means “one who opposes, obstructs, or acts as adversary.”  (The Greek term diabolos, later translated “devil,” literally means “one who throws something across one’s path.”)

The Satan’s  presence in a story could help account for unexpected  obstacles or reversals  of fortune.  Hebrew storytellers often attribute misfortunes to human sin. Some, however, also invoke this supernatural character, the satan, who, by God's own order or permission, blocks or opposes human plans and desires.  But this messenger is not necessarily malevolent. God sends him, like the angel of death, to perform a specific task, although one that human beings may not appreciate; as the literary scholar Neil Forsyth says of the satan, “If the path is bad, an obstruction is good.”  Thus the satan may simply have been sent by the Lord to protect a person from worse harm."(9a)

In the light of this argument by Elaine Pagels, the Hebrew image of the satan was a necessary member of the heavenly theophanic stratum, in nature of a Council for the Prosecution or on other occasions as one whose remit it was to save humanity from embarking upon its own road to disaster.  Nevertheless, although the Hebrew scriptures were the bedrock of Christianity, this latter day cult eagerly waived these earlier scriptural references from its Holy Bible, supplanting them with a far more aggressive thought-form when it suited its own vicious and perverse needs to indoctrinate the minds of its new flock by terror.

This philosophy with parochial deicide and subsequent pogroms on so-called heretics prevailed across what had been the known world of the Roman Empire, becoming the sounding board for Christianity.  This succeeded in Christianity's march for religious domination, rooting out the ethnic Deities found in countries that would be usurped in time by the colonial empires of a new day, British, French, Italian, Spanish, Poruguese and Dutch which continued to contaminate new lands with this Middle Eastern cult. 

The only land relatively free of brutal religious subjugation appears to have been the sub continent of India on account of the late incursions by the British and more importantly because of the strength of the Deities of Bharata and the devotion of its people to their Goddesses and Gods for millennia.  Likewise the continent of Africa appears to have been relatively unaffected but to a lesser extent than India.

And so it was when Christianity came to Britain in the first few centuries AD, that it and local religion coexisted peacefully.  We find Christianity grafted on to Druidism very swiftly and easily.  Sir John Rhys said it was difficult to find a point where Druidism ceased and Christianity commenced.  The Druids at the start simply thought of the saints and even the Nazarene himself as "great Druids" and continued with their work, eventually calling themselves Cele De or Culdees - "Servants of God".

Pockets of Culdees were found to exist relatively late, officiating at Ripon in Yorkshire and Iona in the 8th century and appearing in the church of St. Regulus at St. Andrews until 1124.  A point of interest is a deed signed by Edward Burton, Prior of Armagh Cathedral in 1628 "on behalf of the vicars choral and Culdees of the same".  (Vicars choral are the adult male choristers of a cathedral.) 

a) The precursor to this blatant attack on ethic Deities and the usurpation of Their very identities in a desperate effort to brain-wash humanity had been the stealing of parochial sacred sites and festivals, bringing these in line with the new strange cult as newly erected churches and hurriedly appointed saints' days.  This had been conversion by assimilation. 

b) The next had been conversion by dissatisfaction - trading 'immediate entry to heaven' on death for the 'belief in reincarnation'.

c) The third technique was conversion by psychological attack as discussed above, turning the Elder Deities into devils.

d) The fourth conversion technique was the most evil, a holocaust to prevent the masses even discussing the free religious regime that had been the innocent norm - drowning, the noose or the pyre! Even the use of herbal treatment, the initial bedrock of a modern day pharmaceutical industry, was punishable by death.

From Reuters 'The Great Debate' -  by Lynn Parramore February 13, 2013:-

"Eve is the starting point of the Christian focus on women as vehicles of evil, poison and sorcery. Some, including the 16th century witchcraft debunker Reginald Scot, have argued that English bibles contain a mistranslation of a famous line in Exodus: “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” The correct word, argued Scot and his followers, should be 'poisoner'.

The translation chosen by King James’s scholars for the definitive English version may have simply reflected the atmosphere of the day, but for centuries the belief has persisted that it was done so the king could gin up charges of witchcraft against foes like Jane Douglas, Lady Glamis. The passage certainly helped speed vast numbers of people, mostly women, to fiery deaths."

The "poisoner" text is from Exodus chapter 22, v.18.  The text contains a word which they printed in translation as the inspired word of their god!  The word used is kashaph, not mekashah (sorceress) or mekashef (sorcerer). Kashaph is one who deals with herbs in a negative way - a poisoner.  To live is khayah, which most often means 'to dwell'.  So the correct idiomatic translation of the Hebrew is "Thou shalt not suffer a poisoner to dwell among you".  Here, as may be done with scriptural texts, the words are manipulated to suit the ends of the interpreter. So much, then, for "the word of God that liveth and abideth forever"!

The Septuagint is the Old Testament in Attic Greek.  The Greek farmakeia [pharmakeia] was the older form of the word.  In New Testament Greek the corresponding word used is farmakoi [pharmakoi], the plural of pharmakos and appears but once in Revelations 22:15 and means those who mix potions, herbs, strange ingredients and even poisons.  Here is the relevant Attic Greek text:- "Ecw oi9 kunej kai oi9 farmakoi kai oi9 pornoi kai oi9 foneij kai oi9 ei0dwlolatrai kai paj o9 filwn kai poiwn yeudoj.

Which means -

'Outside (the gates) [the] dogs and [the] drug exploiters and [the] fornicators and [the] murderers and [the] idolators and every one loving and doing a lie.' 

I have placed 'the' in square brackets as nouns in Attic Greek must have 'the' before them - o9 ho (masc.), h9 he (fem.) or to to (neuter).   In translation, however, we never use 'the' as it would make English sentences out of character with the language.  So the writer of Revelation perpetuated the only punishment he knew to be given to a dealer in poisons - banishment outside the city gates as (s)he was convicted of a crime or trade that was highly anti-social.  So were 'Drug-Busts' prevalent at the start of the Common Era? 

Throughout Britain and the Continent of Europe during the persecution, that is 1300 - 1700 (some 400 years), it is estimated that some nine million souls perished because of the charges of witchcraft, paganism or heresy.  This figure is being doubted today, some saying two million.  However, if we can be guided by the 200 per annum in Scotland in the reign of Mary Queen of Scots and the 500 per annum in the first 80 years of the 17th century in England, then an estimate of 300,000 in Britain may be nearer the truth.  If we add a further 3,000 per annum throughout the Continent of Europe, then about 1,200,000 may be a more realistic estimate - a disgusting figure by anyone's imagination!

The Witchcraft Act of George II's reign which was passed in 1735 stated in general terms that witchcraft did not exist.  However, anyone who claimed to possess supernatural powers could be prosecuted for doing so.  This Act was eventually repealed in 1951 and replaced by The Fraudulent Medium's Act.

The prevalent thought of a god - horned - devil seems to have permeated deeply the stratum of mystique in the mind of the common man.  This is very obvious in Robert Burns' 'Tam o' Shanter' reflecting the views of the common man by the second half of the 18th century.  Witches and the devil are still alive and well as he demonstrates in the scene in the haunted and ruined church:-

"Warlocks and witches in a dance: 
Nae cotillon, brent new frae France,
But hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys, and reels, 
Put life and mettle in their heels. 
A winnock-bunker in the east, 
There sat auld Nick, in shape o' beast; 
A towzie tyke, black, grim, and large, 
To gie them music was his charge: 
He screw'd the pipes and gart them skirl,
Till roof and rafters a' did dirl."

Another less known work of the 19th century is the novel ‘Ringan Gilhaize’ or ‘The Covenanters’ by John Galt, published 1823 (9b).  Here is a quotation from volume two, chapter 3 which yet displays the superstition and the effective Christian lies still prevalent in the 19th century:-

“Hallowe’en!” cried Mungo Affleck, with a sound o’ sincerity; “Do yo no ken Hallowe’en?  But I need na say that.  Ye’ll excuse me, captain – what can you Englishers, that are brought up in the darkness o’ human ordinances in gospel things, and who live in the thraldom of Episcopalian ignorance, ken of Hallowe’en or o’ any other solemn day set apart for an occasion.  O, sir, Hallowe’en among us is a dreadful night! Witches and warlocks, and a’ lang-nebbit things, hae a power and a dominion unspeakable on Hallowe’en. The de’il at other times gi’es, it’s said, his agents a mutchkin o’ mischief, but on this night it’s thought they hae a chappin; and one thing most demonstrable is; - but, sir, the sun’s down – the blessed light o’ day is ayont the hill, and it’s no safe to be subjek to the whisking o’ the mildew frae the tails o’ the benweed ponies that are saddled for yon awfu’ caravaulings, where Cluty plays on the pipes! So I wis you, sir, gude night and weel hame. – O sir, an ye could be persuaded! – Tak an auld man’s advice, and rather read a chapter of THE BOOK, an it should even be the unedifying tenth of Nehemiah, than be seen at the gloaming in this gait, about the dyke-sides, like a wolf yearning for some tender lamb of a defenceless fold.”   (Bold accentuation mine.  Gareth)

Here again 'Cluty' (the devil) plays the pipes for the revels which are centred round mischief making and the author, possibly from a line of Protestant covenanters, makes a jibe at " Episcopalian ignorance". 

By the 20th century, this offensive transmutation had been accepted still by Anton LaVey, Dennis Wheatly's novels, Hammer films and others of similar ilk who, in a number of cases, wished to rebel in childlike fashion against society and the established church - a logical case of "the enemy of my enemy is my friend".

Nevertheless, the 20th century also contributed to the witch burning mania as history verifies:-

1. Josephina Arista of Ojinaga, Mexico, who was burned at the stake on charges of witchcraft.  This was performed without any trial whatsoever and on the orders of the local parish priest.  The sentence was implemented by the alcalde and the local police force on 3rd July 1955!

2. Christina Trajo and Benita Sabina who were charged with witchcraft then hacked to pieces and thrown upon a bonfire at Alfajayucan, Mexico, in order that "their souls be purified" on 8th September 1956! 

In modern times, psychology has taught that such a negative entity was really an exteriorised dissociated complex from the collective human consciousness.(10) The method whereby this arose, according to C.G. Jung was the denial that Christ was the whole self, leaving the Christ figure so over-identified with light that inevitably he was to cast a shadow - The Devil.(11) Of course this rationalisation may be a form of undeserved absolution for the sins of the Church militant!

I have used the expression 'Cosmotheism' in recent years to describe the British heritage.  This expression displays no sexualism whatsoever, as the root of 'theism' cannot be determined.  The generally accepted explanation: "the belief that identifies God with the cosmos" reveals the impertinence or the patriarchal despotism of the newer world religions which have totally blinded humanity's reasoning processes in the realm of religious and metaphysical philosophy. 

One must remember that the Attic Greek 'theOS' found his pair-bonding, mating or balancing factor in 'theA', but to attribute an entirely matriarchal meaning to the word would be equally erroneous and presumptive.  The absence of the second vowel, therefore, in the 't-h-e' root imparts a singularly sublime suitability to my use of 'Cosmotheism', permitting the reader to find whatsoever bipolarity, neutrality or abstraction that meets his or her needs.

Strangely enough, the origin of the word 'Church' (or 'Kirk' in Scotland) has its origin in the Greek pagan goddess Kirkh pronounced 'Kirkay' i.e. Circe who, if given an Italian** pronunciation, would be 'Chirchay' - whose task it was to enchant men and defile them. So are we being warned from the myths of ancient time that the Church/Kirk defiles us?

** Why Italian?  In the Aeneid, Circe is found to be living on an Italian island - i.e. She had been adopted into the Roman pantheons.


Nevertheless, the interesting phenomenon of the Mabinogi myth is how, once transmitted 'mouth to ear', it was perpetuated in writing from an early primitive form of language, through three developments of that language, to reach us in the present day thus bridging the generations as was the original intention.   And how, although a written form emerged, the concepts, doctrines and rituals remained non-scriptural - as is the case of the pigmies of central Africa which have an unwritten but highly complicated religion and ritual. (12)

Even those peoples who have lower living standards than our own can still produce great works of art and thought.    (Many Indian, Chinese and African craftsmen living at a very low level produce carvings of vitality and finish that hardly can be equaled in the West. (13) 

For those interested in the construction of enchantments or the working of practical magic(k), as it is termed by the majority involved in 'The Mysteries', there are many pointers within this taxonomy leading those to progress the Law of Analogy even further in order that the requisite inspiration in practicalities be achieved. 

This survey, in some small measure, may contribute to a race held in high regard for its art, craftsmanship in bronze and silver, horsemanship, advanced social law and philosophy by the historians, geographers and militarist of the ancient world. (14)   Indeed in their day the Kelts were wont to say (in Middle Welsh) of both themselves and The Great Mother Goddess: “Nyth oes kystedlyd!”   ("Thou hast no peer!")

As this exposition has been centred on the Avia of a matrilineal family, perhaps She should have the last word:-

"High Queen am I and ever-hidden Mother of The Warband.   List well, for thine understanding be dimmed by the cares of mortality, and learn what thou may’st of My Divine Nature.

Born of the mighty sea is the silent river and the shaded mere at river's end.   Yet the waters of each are of the one sea - yea, be the sea.

Even so do I extend My Spirit, that I be manifest to humankind in some small measure, both as The Moon above thee and as The Earth on which thou dost briefly sojourn.   These Two some call My Daughters, for They are indeed of My conceiving, yet are They but as facets of one beauteous gem beyond value and ever hid from mortal eye.

Ever honour Me As Th'Eternal Spirit of Earth - Lady of Love and Bestower of abundance upon all that liveth.   Lo I Who am the Weaver of Life upward through the earth do ever bring fruitfulness of mind and nurture to the spirit.   Behold with reverence The Maid of Spring in fertile purity and She Who be heavy with fruits of love in Summer - decked in green leaf and many a bloom of radiant hue.   Honour Me in Appletime while I bring forth that My children feel no want.   And in the even may’st thou sleep next the warmth of My Breast 'neath the stars till, in the twilight of life, thy shell returns to the depths of My Womb.

Lift thine eyes in adoration in the silent hours and behold the Face of She Who, with stars as diadem, doth smile on the path of Her children.   Know Me, therefore, as Queen of Night at which time thou art wont to journey from thine earthly fortress.   Lo then, when sleep draws all near the freedom of death while yet they live, art thou nearer She Who granted thee thy first conception.   Behold the waters of earth are at My bidding, the tides of womankind at My commanding.   And so the ebb and flow of thine emotions perchance may cast ashore a tor of shining pearls in which be mirror'd Mine instruction and by which thou may'st ascend to The Realms of The High Ones where all secrets lie.  Lo these treasures of myst'ry and enchantment are Mine alone to bestow - see thou be ever worthy of so great a blessing.   Let My Youth attend thy beginnings, My Royal Beauty thine adoring, My deep wise Counsel all thine endings.

Grieve not, then, though My Form entire be hid, for The Divine Lady of thy universe am I.   Beyond the seen and unseen; beyond thine understanding and all thou comprehendest not; beyond all, yet in all - there be My dwelling place.   Yea, though Night's pale lantern be Mine eyes, and My fingertips caress thy brow in Summer's mansions green, 'tis beauty of the mind that wins My smile.   Let thy breast be compassion's resting-place and My breath shall awake thy soul.   Fill thy heart at Love's pure fount of honour and meekly shalt thou hear My whisper.   Aye and when all these dwell kindred in thy being with life's joy full upon thy lip, all to Mine Honour, then shalt thou truly worship Me and only then shall My blest hand grasp thine.

Lo now I charge thee worship Me in treasured word lest profanation stain the Defodau to My displeasure.   And oft times as thou may’st give adoration to My Spirit - ever in secret, alone or 'mid thy kindred, in fullest reverence yet with Life's song ringing in thy heart.

Mark well, that ere all dare approach Mine Altarstone, any ill be driven out the breast that no dark cloud of malice to aught in the broad earth may I see.   Only thus shalt thou be fit to serve, and Bendith Y Mamau - The Blessing of The Mothers to receive.

Remember well My Nature all womankind doth bless.   Though some may house an ember or bear a flick'ring glow or some aloft in triumph hold My Flame, give each her honour as thou indeed would'st reverence Me.   For My chaste Cauldron do they keep, My Myst'ries they do guard, and every birth My Motherhood proclaims.   Let each fresh  life remind thee all are born of Me - again amid their kin to dwell a space till unto Me they pass for birth anew.   Such be Kylch Abred and such thy destiny." 

 1.. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright
...  .©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. 
Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin
..... Company. All rights reserved.

 1a Britannia after the Romans by A. Herbert (LonDôn) 1841.
 2.  Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker, Chapt. 1, i (CDM, California) 1992
 3.  ibid. (chapt. 5, v).
 4.  Practical Metaphysics by Dr. William H. Woodfin, Chapt, 1, viii (CDM, California) 1993
 5.  Portal of The Keltic Gods by Mael Gwynedd (Excalibur) 1991.
 6.  Voices of the First Day by Robert Lawlor (Inner Traditions International Ltd., Vermont)
..... 1991.

 7.  The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966.
 8.  ibid.
 9.  The Satanic Bible by Anton LaVey (Avon Books) 1969.
9a  The Origin of Satan by Elaine Pagels (Vintage Books) 1996.
9b  Annals of the Parish by John Galt (Serenity Publishers, LLC) 2009.
10.  Psychology by Richard D. Gross (Hodder; Stoughton) 1992.
11.  Coll. Works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 9 part 2 (RKP).
12.  What World Religions Teach by E.G. Parrinder, D.D., (Harrap, LonDôn) 1963.
13.  ibid
14.  The Philosophy of Ancient Britain by J. Daniel (LonDôn) 1927. 

As an addendum to demonstrate the concept of The Absolute in Keltic philosophy, I present "Ffynhonnell"  (The Source), an example of pure bardic mysticism by the imaginary soul of one who has passed over and who addresses the Source of All.   This is the Cosmic Mother Goddess whence all come and whither all return and whose companion in evolution is Her Consort - The Cosmic Father God.

The speaker, overawed at the complex cosmic vista of bewildering infinitude, glimpses his/her next incarnation with certainty and trust - another revolution of Kylch Abred, The Circle of Abred or Rebirth.

As I have said before on many occasions: "We do not have unproven superstitious belief and faith in our Deities or in our interaction with Those Deities Who are either our unseen Mae'r Rhieni yn gyntaf (The First Parents) or Kedymdeithyon (Kindred).

We have absolute certainty!


(The Source)

Dark Queen, Thou call’st us forth from wildest tides
And storm-lashed shores of our mortality.
And soft we rise as phantom flakes on winter morn
To pierce th’enfolding gyre of boundless space.

On, ever on float we
Upon the coolest sigh of subtle winds -
The echo of Thy laughter,
Reaching far through dimensions unimaginable
Where Thou inhabitest eternity.

Thine unseen form, bedecked with jewellèd galaxies
A-whirling in the rose flush of an ancient dawn
And violet shadows - the dusk of many an aeon,
Bears us forth amid Thy royal apparel -
An opalescent cloak of beauty terrible
Bequeathèd by Thy Lord
And living Consort infinite.

Here Ye both maintain
The I AM of existence,
A Divine Concubinage
Of everlasting truth and life.

And there amid the fire-mist bright,
And yonder mid the incandescent flare
When starry song in triumph closes
Reign Ye The Source
And ever-certain Ending.

Yea, on we speed through Ye,
The Twain Who coalesce in One,
Spurred by smould’ring flame
That is Your Spirit deep
Within our souls,
To find in Ye the endless future
And immeasurable past,
Until at length upon the shore
Of here and now stand we anew.

And so find we Your ever-present
Hand in ours, for Ye are here -
Our mortal form but threads within
The warp and weft of Your 
Abundant Essence Royal;

And we an humble palace-hall,
Miniscule yet sublime
Aglow with that dear smile
Of Parenthood Divine.

With all thanks to The First Parents' teaching,
guidance & inspiration, without which this
Taxonomy never would have appeared.

(Perpetual Union)

Thank you, Joseph Campbell

 copyright © Dr. Gareth Pengwerin
1975, 1984, 1992, 2002, 2014 

All rights reserved.


01 Analytical Psychology Its Theory and Practice by C.G. Jung
(ARK edition) 1986.

02 Annals of the Parish by John Galt (Serenity Publishers, LLC) 2009.

03 A Grammar of Middle Welsh by D. Simon Evans (The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1970

04 An Outline of Paiget's Developmental Psychology by Ruth M. Baird. R&KP London. 

05 An Outline of the Principles and Concepts of Neometaphysics by Dr. J.J. Williamson  (The Society of Metaphysicians Ltd.) 1967

06 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad chapt. 6  (Shankara Bhashya translated by Swami Madhavananda) 1950

07 Britannia after the Romans by A. Herbert (LonDôn) 1841

08 Celtic Myth and Legend, Poetry & Romance by Charles Squire (Gresham) London

09 Chaos and Beyond by Robert Anton Wilson (Paranormal Books) 1994

10 Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 9 part 2 (RKP)

11 Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © Harper Collins Publishers  1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003.                                                                                                                           

12 Comparative Religions by Dr. Mary Whitaker (CDM, California.) 1992

13 Dictionary of Sanskrit – online http://sanskritdictionary.org

14 Dominion Of Dreams Under The Dark Star Part II 'The Wells of Peace'
 by Fiona Macleod (Duffield & Company, New York) 1910.

15 Hidden in Plain Sight - The simple link between relativity & Quantum Mechanics by Andrew Thomas (AcuteSpace Independent Publishing
Platform) 2012

16 Hyperspace by Michio Kaku (Anchor Books) 1995

17 Indian Myth and Legend by Donald McKenzie (Gresham)

18 Initiation into Hermetics by Franz Bardon (Osiris-Verlag, W. Germany)

19 Inner Traditions of Magic by William Gray (Aquarian Press) 1970

20 Introduction to Mythology by Lewis Spence (Harrap) 1921

21 Introducing Quantum Theory by J.P. McEvoy & Oscar Zarate
(Icon Books) 2007

22 Jung on Evil (Routledge) 1995

23 Kant by Roger Scruton (OUP) 1982

24 Kundalini Yoga by M.P. Pandit (Ganesh & Co. Madras) 1971

25 Language and History in Early Britain by Prof. K.H. Jackson
(Edinburgh) 1953

26 Marwnat Dylan Eil Ton (Book of Taliesin poem No. 43) - online

27 Madhya 9.175 - C.C. Madhya Illa = Meditation on Srimate Radharani.

28 Memories, Dreams, Reflections by C.G. Jung (Fontana Press) 1995

29 Metaphysical Healing by Dr. Joseph Perry Green  (CDM, California.) 1993

30 Myths & Legends of The Celtic Race by T.W. Rolleston (Harrap & Co. Ltd)  1949

31 New Statesman (on line comments site of the year) http://www.newstatesman.com/sci-tech /2013/03/ welcome-ekpyrotic-universe

32 'On Generation and Corruption' also known as 'On Comin to Be
and Passing Away'  Book 1, Part1 paragraph 2 and 5 by Aristotle

33 Online Sanskrit Dictionary:  http://dictionary.tamilcube.com/sanskrit   dictionary.aspx. 

34 'On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and Intelligible
World' by Kant - 1770

35 Oxford Companion to Philosophy, E Henderich [Ed]

36 Pagan Celtic Britain by Dr. Anne Ross, (Carousel Books)

37 Portal of The Keltic Gods by Mael Gwynedd (Excalibur) 1991

38 Practical Metaphysics by Dr. William H. Woodfin, Chapt, 1, viii (CDM, California) 1993

39 Primitive Mythology by Joseph Campbell (Viking Press) 1959

40 Prometheus Rising by Robert Anton Wilson (Falcon Press) 1986

41 Psychology by Richard D. Gross (Hodder; Stoughton) 1992

42 Psychology & Religion: West and East.  Coll. Works of C.G. Jung vol. 11

43 Quantum: Einstein, Bohr & the Great Debate about the Nature of
Reality by Manjit Kumar (Icon Books) 2009

44 Quantum Mechanics The Theoretical Minimum by Leonard Suskind & Art Friedman (Allen Lane) 2014

45 Quantum Physics by Alastair I.M. Rae (One World Publications) 2005

46 Quantum Physics and Ultimate Reality by Michael Green (Amazon Kindle Direct Publication) 2014

47 Quantum Psychology by Robert Anton Wilson (New Falcon Publications)

48 Shadow Matter & Psychic Phenomena by Dr. Gerhard Wassermann
(Mandrake Press) 1993

49 Srimad Bhagavatam Sixth Canto Part 1 by Swami Prabhupada (Bhaktivedanta BookTrust) Germany 1975

50 Sri Bhagavat-sandarbha, Vol.1 by Srila Jiva Gosvami (Ras Bihari
Lal & Sons, Vrindaban) 2007

51 Tantrik Yoga by J. Marques Riviere (Aquarian Press) 1940

52 Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 10-Apr-13

53 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Updated in 2009.  Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights
54 The Black Book of Carmarthen by John Gwenogvryn Evans (General Books LLC) 2009

55 The Collected Works of Fiona McLeod (William Sharp) Vol ll
The Sin Eater, The Washer of The Ford & Other Legendary Moralities
by Fiona Macleod (William Heinemann) 1919

56 The Colloquy of Monos and Una', Tales of Mystery and Imagination
by Edgar Allan Poe (The Folio Society, London) 1999

57 The Edge of the Sky: All You Need to Know about the All-There-Is
by Robert Trotta (Basic Books) 2014

58 The Endocrine System by J.G. Lewis (Penguin Education) 1973

59 The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage" by Dion Fortune (Society
of The Inner Light, 1967

60 The Fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene (Penguin Books) 2004

61 The Gododdin by K.H. Jackson (Edinburgh University Press) 1950

62 The Hero with a Thousand Faces  by Joseph Campbell  (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press) 1949

63 The Higgs Boson: Searching for the God Particle by Scientific American
Editors (Scientific American) 2012

64 The Infinitity Delusion by James R Meyer (Alterologic) 2013

65 The Laws of Thermodynamics by Peter Atkins (OUP Oxford) 2010

66 The Mabinogi trans. Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones (Dent and Dutton) 1970

67 The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain by Lewis Spence (Aquarian Press) 1946

68 The Missal (Burns Oates & Washbourne) 1960

69 The Mysteries of Britain by Lewis Spence (Senate) 1994

70 The Mystical Qabalah by Dion Fortune (Ernest Benn) 1935

71 The Origin of Satan by Elaine Pagels (Vintage Books) 1996

72 The Poems of Taliesin, edited by Sir Ifor Williams, poem No. 1 line 20
(The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies) 1968

73 The Return of The Serpent of Wisdom by Mark Amaru Pinkham
(Adventures Unlimited Press Kempton, Illinois 60946 USA) 2013

74 The Poetry in the Red Book of Hergest, Reproduced & Edited by
J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Nabu Press) 2013

75 The Philosophy of Ancient Britain by J. Daniel (LonDôn) 1927

76 The Satanic Bible by Anton LaVey (Avon Books) 1969

77 The Secret Doctrine by H.P. Blavatsky (Quest, USA) 1966

78 The Tarot by Mouni Sadhu  (George Allen & Unwin Ltd.) 1975

79 The Western  Mystery Tradition by Christine Hartley (The Aquarian Press)

80 The White Goddess by Robert Graves (Faber & Faber) 1961

81 The Winged Bull by Dion Fortune (Wyndham Publications) 1976

82 Understanding Quantum Physics by Shan Gao PhD (Amazon Kindle Direct Publication) 2014

83 Voices of the First Day by Robert Lawlor (Inner Traditions International Ltd., Vermont) 1991

84 What World Religions Teach by E.G. Parrinder, D.D., (Harrap, LonDôn) 1963

85 Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sat_(Sanskrit)

86 Witten, Edward. Radio interview, Vetandets värld, Swedish public radio,
6 June 2008

87 Y Gododdin by Aneirin/Edit A.O.H.Jarman (Gomer) 1988

88 Y Plant Dôn - Kaer Dathyl website by Gareth Pengwerin.

My suggestion of some forty-four years ago that the Cosmos may be viewed as a black sphere the depth point of which is everywhere and the perimeter of which is nowhere and, although suggesting infinity, may inadvertently have touched upon a finite structure of the Cosmos which, although not having its dimensionality - infinite or finite - inspiried by the Platonic & Aristotelian concept may have simply regurgitated something old rather than defined something new.

I have noted in recent months that scientific thought is returning to the idea of a finite Cosmos the shape of which is circular but, as in a soccer ball, constructed of 12 curved pentagons which form a dodecahedron - yes, another regurgitation of something old.  I await further results of this in the realm of quantum physics as the allies of modern technology and thought can but reveal new vistas.  How many times have we heard said, "We are living in exciting times"?  These modern researches certainly reinforce the saying and, I trust, will assist in bringing new definitions to fruition in our own time.

In a recent T.V. documentary, we were presented with the latest scientific pronouncement that whatsoever disappears down a black hole leaves its imprint upon the curved entrance, a two dimensional convex meniscus.  The qualities, appearance, colour, dimensionality. history, indeed all the 'innards' of that which entered has its codes stored in this way, even as information is stored on a computer disc, to be recovered at some future time.  Call these codes mathematical equations, electrical coronal discharges - a quantum version of Kirlian photography, anything you will but there they remain extant and accessible.

It was further assumed that the entire cosmos may have disappeared down a mega black hole at one time leaving its codes in the above way.  It was then suggested that the cosmos we know and of which we are part may be a form of hologram drawn from this meniscus, its appearing, including we who indwell this hologram, to be but an illusion.

Well, well!  Did not the Buddhists have an expression for this illusion?  Maya?

They have yet to categorically qualify the Dark Essence which permeates the entire vista of space. 

Dear scientists, it is the Cosmic Goddess, be-ness or Sat as described in Sanscrit.  It's about time you read such works as the Vedas and Upanishads where such concepts are freely discussed.  The Samhitas date to c.1500–1000 a.e.v., so I'm afraid you will have to catch up on 3,500 + years to update your memory banks and correspond to that which was given by Brahma.

Now if you please, a little instruction to American TV presenters.  The word Cosmos is from the Greek Kosmoj - note the two vowels which are two 'omicrons' ( o] ) that are short 'o's.  Therefore the pronunciation is 'Cŏsmŏs' NOT 'Cosmōse'.  The second Greek vowel is not an omega ( w)))  ) which is a long 'o'! 

Nevertheless my sympathies go to such presenters who probably never learned even the Greek alphabet.  Thankfully The United Kingdom still boasts senior schools which retain the teaching of the Classical languages of Latin and Attic Greek.  

end note - 6th November, 2013