IN THE 20th CENTURY - Part 1 (1900 to 1960)

Both parts 1 and 2 of the History of Popular Music are the roads
which prevented the specific objectives of the subject for both
Common & Certificate courses from loosing breadth of focus.

There was just as strong a balance of listening, analysis and practical musicianship
in all areas of this study as was delivered in that of academic music.

                               .             ....

• American trends in the late 19th & early 20th centuries:
        Similarity between American popular music and the light romantic
        music of Western Europe.  As the early settlers were mostly European
        and still considered themselves English, French, German, Austrian or
        whatever, they tended to look to the old countries for the latest
        in song and dance.
        Stephen Foster – his influence and contribution.
• American trends (contd.)
        John Philip Sousa – his contribution.
• American trends (contd.)
        Tin Pan Alley – the music marketing machine.
        Scott Joplin – his contribution.
        The Pianola – music for all in the home.
• American trends (contd.)
        Ragtime – its rise, influence, brief reign and wane.
        World War 1 – erosion of the popularity of European-style music
        because of the German enemy giving a spur to the development
        of a home-spun American variety .
• The Anatomy of Jazz
        African drum rhythms
        Negro work song (the root of The Blues)
        Negro Spiritual
• Instrumentation of Jazz
        Derived from the Marching Band:-
        trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano
        bass and drums.  Music could be
        considered as 'generally comtrapuntal'.
• Storeyville to Chicago
        New Orleans as the focal point
        Closure of Storyville in 1917
        Early record production in 1917
        New Orleans musicians: Buddy Bolden, Bunk Johnston, King Joe Oliver,
        Louis Armstrong, King Freddie Keppard, Original Dixieland Jazz Band.
        Blues Singers: e.g. Blind Lemon Jefferson.
• Chicago
       ‘capital city’ of Jazz in the period following World War 1
• Chicago to Harlem

        Chicago (black)   King Oliver, Louis’ Hot Five, New Orleans Rhythm Kings,
                                    Johnny Dodds  Kid Orry

        Chicago (white)   Muggsy Spanier, Mezz Mezzrow, Bix Beiderbeck, The Wolverines

        Harlem (black)    'Jelly-Roll' Morton, James P. Johnson, 'Fats' Waller,
                                    Willie 'The Lion’ Smith, Earl ‘Fatha’ Hines (all pianists)

        Blues singers       Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith

        New York (white)  Red Nichols & The Five Pennies, Dorsey Brothers, Ben Pollock

• The Swing Era
        Early 1930’s Depression detrimental to the Jazz scene
        1935 – appearance of Swing
        Two separate backgrounds: a) black (e.g. Ellington, Basie)
                                                     b) white (e.g. Goodman, Shaw)
• Giants of Swing (1930s and 1940s)
        Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Count Basie,
        Benny Goodman, Dorsey Brothers, Harry James,
        Artie Shaw, Charlie Barnet, Woody Herman,
        Glen Miller, Stan Kenton.
Top Sidemen

        Clarinet Sidney Bechet (+ Soprano), Pee Wee Russel, Jimmy Guiffre, Woody Herman

        Alto Benny Carter, Johnny Hodges, Marshall Royal, Boots Mussuli, Charlie Parker

        Tenor Bud Freeman, Ben Webster, Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young,
                  Eddie ‘Lockjaw’ Davis, Vido Musso, Zoot Sims, Stan Getz,
                  John Coltrane

        Baritone Harry Carnie, Edgar Samson, Gerry Mulligan

        Trumpet..Bunny Berrigan, Charlie Shavers, 'Cat' Anderson, 'Dizzy' Gillespie,
                       Ziggy Elman, 'Wingy' Manone, Cootie Williams, 'Hot Lips' Page,
                      'Shorty' Rogers, Clark Terry, Roy Eldridge, Al Aarons,
                       Maynard Ferguson, Conti Condoli, Chico Alvarez

        Trombone Jack Teagarden, Harlem Floyd, Brad Gowans, Al Grey,
                          Ray Conniff, Juan Tizol, Kai Winding

        Piano Mary Lou Williams, Jess Stacey, John Guarnier, Thad Jones,
                  Joe Bushkin, Pete Johnson

        Xylophone 'Red' Norvo
        Vibraphone Lionel Hampton

        Organ 'Wild' Bill Davidson

        Guitar Eddie Condon, Irving Fayola, Charlie Christian (Electric in 1939),
                   Django Reinhart (French)

     Bass Morty Cobb, Harry Goodman, Eddie Safranski

     Drums Ben Pollock, Gene Krupa, Chic Webb, Buddy Rich, Sam Woodyard,
                 Eddie Shaughnessy, Shelly Mann

     Vocals Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan
• The Ballroom Cult commenced c. 1940
      World War 2 – its influences
      The ‘sweet’ sounds – e.g. Glen Millar, Ray Anthony.
• Featured Singers
       Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Nat ‘King’ Cole, Frankie Laine,
       Eddie Fisher, Billy Eckstein, Guy Mitchell, Johnny Ray,
       Perry Como, Dean Martin, Al Martino,Tenessie Ernie Ford,
       Don Cherry.
       Joe Stafford, Sarah Vaughan, Doris Day, Rosemary Cloonie,
       Kay Starr,Lena Horne, Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy Lee, Fran Warren.
        The Four Aces, The Four Freshmen, The Hi-Los.
• Latin-American Influences
        a) on vocal styles (e.g. Carmen Miranda, Vicky Carr)
        b) on instrumental styles (e.g. via Xavier Cougat & Perez Prado
               to Stan kenton et al.)
• Progressive to Modern Jazz
       The Outcome of 1940’s “Be Bop”
       Stan Kenton and Charlie Barnet Big Bands
       Buddy de Franco (clar)
       Charlie Parker (alto)
       Lester Young (tenor)
       Zoot Simms (tenor)
       Stan Getz (tenor)
       Roy Eldridge (trumpet)
       Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet)
       Miles Davis (trumpet)
       Urbie Green (trombone)
       Pianists: Art Tatum, Errol Garner, Red Garland,
       Thelonius Monk, Oscar Peterson
     The ‘Cool’ School
        Dave Brubeck (piano)
        Paul Desmond (alto)
        Lee Konitz (alto)
        Berg Larsen (baritone)
• Britain at the Terminal Phase of The Big Band
  and start of “The Charts”
        Ted Heath Orchestra with vocalists - Dickie Valentine,
                         Dennis Lotus,  Lita Rosa and Bobby Britton
        Eric Delaney Big Band
       Johnny Dankworth Big Band with vocalist Cleo Laine
        Kenny Baker
        BBC Northern Dance Orchestra
        Basil & Ivor Kirchin
        Humphrey Lyttelton
        Chris Barber Jazz Band
        Sid Philips Jazz Band
        Ken Mackintosh and his Orchestra
        Joe Loss and his Orchestra
        Ronnie Scott Big Band
        Carl Barriteau Big Band
        Frank Weir & his Orchestra
• Sidemen
        Check the web under the above bands (many ‘great’ musicians)

  British Ballad Singers:
         David Whitfield, Robert Earl, Malcolm Vaughan, Jimmy Young
         Ronnie Hilton, Frankie Vaughan
         Ruby Murray, Eve Boswell, Alma Cogan, Petula Clark
         The Stargazers, The Beverley Sisters
• The Broadway Musical

         1920's: No No Nanette, Show Boat, Bitter Sweet, Blossom Time, Desert Song,
                      The New Moon, Funny Face, Rio Rita
         1930's: Anything Goes, Bitter Sweet, Babes in Arms, Roberta, Wizard of Oz,
                       I Marries an Angel, Gay Divorcée
         1940's: Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, Annie Get Your Gun,
                       Finian's Rainbow,
         1950's: My Fair Lady, The Boy Friend, West Side Story, Gypsy, Guys and Dolls
..                    The Sound of Music, Kiss Me Kate,The King and I
(e.g.: 1943 – ‘Oklahoma’ had the five best selling songs in that year)
          1960s  (The Film Musical)
          The Student Prince
           West Side Story
           The Vagabond King
           Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
           That Midnight Kiss
           Blue Hawaii
           Flower Drum Song
           Mary Poppins
           My Fair Lady
           West Side Story
           Sweet Charity
           The Sound of Music
         Featured Singers:
          Kathryn Grayson
          Ann Blyth
          Jeanette McDonald
          Nelson Eddie
          Gordon Macrae
          Howard Keel
          Mario Lanza
...       Vic Damone
          Oreste Kirkope
          Julie Andrews
          Elvis Presley

embedded track: Concerto to End All Concertos (Stan Kenton)

Here we find the Kenton Orchestra demonstrating Kenton as
composer, arranger and performer.  After the Kenton introduction
of the theme on piano, we have solos by:
Vido Musso on a very warm evocative tenor;
Chico Alvarez (trumpet) emitting suitable 'screamers';
Boots Mussulli's rapidly facile alto.

Following Kai Winding on trombone we have featured a most
eloquent choir of trombones then a delicately fluidic sax section.
The bass solo is by Eddie Safranski backed by
a haunting, muted trumpet section.

Ending by Shelly Mann (drums) leading
out the Kenton Outfit in full cry!